Browsing Tag: education

    FIRST SAILBOAT EVER TO COME HERE! – SAILING FOLLOWTHEBOAT Ep 95
    Articles, Blog

    FIRST SAILBOAT EVER TO COME HERE! – SAILING FOLLOWTHEBOAT Ep 95

    September 21, 2019


    So we’ve decided to leave the
    fabulously astonishingly beautiful area around Pedjaul, and we’ve chosen a day
    where it’s pretty windy-ish… Very wet. Typical tropical weather. You know, one
    perfect day and in the next it’s at all grey and like this. Anyway we’ve got wind
    on the nose, there’s 15 knots of it, and it’s only about a 12-15 mile passage. But the
    end bits gonna be very interesting… We’ve got shoals, we’ve got reefs either side,
    and we’re gonna have to weave our way through using some waypoints before we
    can set anchor… At waterfall Bay. So we’ll keep you posted So we’re here, but where’s the waterfall? Aha.
    The reason the waterfall isn’t here is because we didn’t go to Waterfall Bay in
    the end! As you may have seen earlier, it’s a pretty crappy day, overcast, rain,
    quite a bit of wind, waves all that stuff that you get when you’re in a boat. So as
    we were going along we kept seeing some rather interesting bits of land and
    islands with little nooks and crannies. So we had another look at the charts, and
    we chose to come here instead. It’s a village, it’s obviously a fishing village
    because there are fish traps and fish farms all along here. Doesn’t have a name,
    we’re not quite sure where it is. We’re go and investigate tomorrow, but at the
    moment… it’s lovely here, it’s really very, very pretty. Surrounded by mountains,
    high mountains, loads of jungle and pretty houses. We’ve had two atrocious days of weather.
    Very heavy rain, thick dark clouds… so it’s not been great for videoing,
    photography, or even jumping in the dinghy exploring. But today we’ve had a
    break, and it’s a little bit overcast still but we’ve got blue patches. And
    we’ve just hopped in the dinghy and we’re going to go ashore to this
    little village here which we’re anchored up by. It’s a kind of v-shaped bay, with
    coral reefs all around it. And along one side of the reefs are these fishing,
    stilted… I suppose they’re fish traps really, fish
    farms maybe, with little sheds on top of some of them. And it is set in among
    the… – I forgot the name, I found the name yesterday because it was in one
    of the charts we were using – but this has a name, this bay, it’s a strait. Very
    sort of fjord-like. And this village, certainly from the boat, looks quite
    pretty. So we thought we’d go ashore and have a look. It’s very shallow around here. The village is
    almost divided in two halves, a couple of houses up to the north, and then a few
    more down to the south of the mosque. But then in the middle they’ve got this huge,
    great big area, which is extremely shallow. So shallow in fact that we had
    to park the dinghy up in the water, tied to a little mangrove growth there. And so
    we’re just going to go for a wander behind me. And there is a road, there is
    actually a road, even though a lot of these islands are very independent, they do seem to
    be linked somewhat by tracks and pathways. One thing I think quite a few
    of you may ask of these villages, seemingly stuck in the middle of nowhere,
    is where they get their water from? Well, in this village as we walk past the
    little clearing heading up into the hills, we can see on the floor a number
    of plastic pipes, and they meet the main pathway where I’m standing now. And they
    shoot off in that direction, that direction, and a few more to feed the
    houses in front of us. So there’s obviously some kind of natural spring up
    in the hill, which they’re feeding from. Well this is a first, we’ve never seen
    this before… I don’t think in the Anambas yet. We see
    these, we call them “longtails” – of course that’s the Thai name for the
    fishing boats here – But they’re all wood, and hand-made. This is the first time
    that we’ve actually seen them being made. We’ve got two guys behind me here,
    who are just currently… they’re actually caulking and putting in the
    waterproofing between each wooden slat. They’re using some kind of gum
    resin… don’t know what is, no idea. They’re literally using their hands to
    bead the caulking into each slat. You can see behind me on this side,
    the pile of hardwood that they’re using. It’s a red hardwood. Not sure what it
    is, probably indigenous to the islands. But it’s beautiful, it really is a
    beautiful work of art. So you can see already, Liz has managed
    to pick up three children, one of whom is our guide, “Wayne Rooney” I think his name
    is. And he’s very sweetly given Liz an hibiscus, a very big pink hibiscus, as
    a welcoming present. Unusually for these islands, we’re actually over a hill. You can see Esper in the distance over there And I say unusually because most
    of these islands, most of these villages, are like this. All the buildings are on
    sea level. They seem to have some kind of walkway along here which isn’t
    finished. Either that or it is some kind of breakwater. But instead, we have
    ascended a short hill you can hear… how unfit I am by me being out of breath. And
    we’ve climbed up the hill to get a lovely perspective of our anchorage. The boys seem to be taking us somewhere in particular, we’ve no idea where. So Wayne Rooney here,
    has been showing me the mango trees, which I think they planted,
    because they seem very, very proud of them, in amongst all the coconuts. School? Sekolah? Yeah!…OK. Yeah, that’s what they say: “Pom-pom”… Which is
    the name of course of these boats I forgot the name of them. Of course! They’re
    called this because they make a noise, the single-cylinder (I think they’re
    single-cylinder engines) When you hear them motor past,
    going pom-pom-pom-om-pom… Hence the name! We were just saying it smells nice! Fresh-cut wood. Love it. Love it. And a slight hint of epoxy or something…probably not epoxy… I don’t know what it is… So it’s called pom-pom! These kids are great!
    We’re just following them around, and they’re taking us to all the sights.
    We’ve just seen a pom-pom, as we know what they’re called now, they’re “longtail
    boats” on one side. And we’re now going to go to the school, which even without
    Google Translate we worked out that sekolah (or a esekolah) I’ll check it later,
    is very clearly “school”. So this I know is new because I’ve checked Google Earth
    on satellite images and on satellite images: this is just a great big space. So
    they’ve raised the trees here to make way for the school, so I think this
    is relatively new. And they’re obviously very proud of it ,because they’ve been
    racing around this pathway to get us here, so we can find… go and have a look
    at their new school! What is this, Wayne Rooney? What is this?
    Strawberry? Strawberry! I was told this is “books-books”.
    We’ve got a little case here, with some books and magazines and
    pamphlets and things over here. And another one over there in the corner.
    Other than that, it’s completely just plain white floor. It all looks
    quite new. So I think this is great. They’re obviously investing quite a bit of
    money in education here, which is marvellous. And you said in the other building they
    had a big atlas. Yeah, in the other building here, which is also quite new
    compared to there, was a big, big picture taking up the whole of one wall of the
    world! And then on the other, opposite corner, there was one just
    of Asia, almost the same size. This is old, it’s falling apart, there’s holes in the roof. Generator, by the looks of things. We found the football pitch, which is
    behind me. It’s a little bit overgrown, though. It’s probably a bit too hot to
    play football, so why not dry your hide out, instead? As we’ve been walking through the
    village with our entourage, I’ve been trying the few words that I
    know in Bahasa, but mainly using my phone, to find out if they had fish? No. If
    they had anything else? No. If there was a shop? No. And if we could get a coffee? No.
    Anyway… this is the shop. And apparently, they’re gonna do us a coffee,
    which is brilliant. Inside the shop! This is the grocery store, which sell basics.
    And Sen and Ha, who are sitting over here, Sen is by the window, and he is a
    teacher at the nursery school and the primary school that we went to visit. And
    this is Ha, and Ha is the proprietor of the shop. He is very kindly, rather
    than just selling us the sachet of coffee and a tea, he’s actually made us tea and
    coffee because we were a little bit dehydrated. And, of course, we have the
    usual entourage of the boys as well, who are watching our every move. So we say
    “terima kasih!” Thank you very much, thank you. Did you get that? Yeah. His name is Bajar
    not Wayne Rooney, no not Wayne Rooney. You have Rooney on your back, on here
    Rooney. Yes. [Laughter] There’s a cengkeh tree, here.
    Can you explain what that is? What a cengkeh tree? Yeah. A cengkeh tree is a clove tree. And
    there are a few of them around here, and some of the guys farm them and
    they’re very, very intense because you have to pick tiny tiny buds, and then you
    have to wait six months for them to dry them into the things that we see as
    cloves in the supermarket. That’s a tree there! So we’re making our way back now. It’s been a very
    interesting afternoon, walking around with the boys, getting a little guided
    tour, and meeting some of the local people, and stopping off for a coffee as
    well. And in fact Sen, who was the teacher, explained to us that we’re the first
    boat that they have seen in the village! So that’s quite exciting! And quite
    possibly the first time that these boys have ever seen a drone, and some big, fat
    English tourist walking along talking to himself in front of the camera. So, that’s the end of this week’s episode,
    which was set in the rather beautiful little village of… Air Putih, it’s called,
    which is “white water” in Indonesian. Now we’ve been waxing lyrical about the
    last few places we’ve visited, haven’t we? But I know that Liz just wanted to add
    a little something at the end of this video. Yes, I did, I just wanted to say
    that those children completely stole my heart. And in fact the whole village did.
    They were so welcoming, and so fresh and innocent, and just delightful. Sen, the school teacher, is Bajar’s father, and he told us quite a lot of
    stories which we weren’t able to cover. Anyway, the children… they don’t have any
    phones, not any any kind of electronic gadgets to play with, they spend all
    their time outside running around among the trees, helping parents, helping the workers there.
    And they were just full of joy. And full of
    knowledge as well. They really knew their stuff when it came to plants, machinery,
    the environment in which they live. They were so switched on.
    They educated us, they really did. They taught me the names of the
    trees and the fruits in their language, and they got me to identify trees, they’d
    point at them and say, “what’s that?” So by the end of the day I felt quite
    knowledgeable! Hmm, and tearful. Yes I did. I did have a little tear when I got back
    to the boat, because I had enjoyed that day more than any other, I have to say.
    Yeah, quite special. Well, anyway, that’s the end of the episode. Don’t forget
    if you enjoy watching our channel then please hit that like button, and also if
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    very much! Now, this week this week we are going to be putting that big question to
    our Patrons, which is… where are we going to go sailing next season? By the
    time this goes live we will have asked them. So if you want to get
    involved in that, then please do check out our Patreon page, and be one of the
    couple of hundred or so that will be voting on where we go next.
    It’s a big decision. In the meantime, Peace and fair winds!

    USA & India VS China & Russia – Who Would Win? (Army / Military Comparison)
    Articles, Blog

    USA & India VS China & Russia – Who Would Win? (Army / Military Comparison)

    September 16, 2019


    The US and Russia, China, and India, two separate
    long-term rivalries and two flashpoints for global war. But what if China and Russia decided to set
    aside their differences and join against an Indian-American alliance? Who would win, and how would that war play
    out? The rules of this wargame are as usual, no
    use of nuclear weapons allowed and no other allies can be called upon. First let’s take a look at each contestant’s
    military might and see what capabilities each would bring to the table. First up is India, the world’s fourth most
    powerful military. With an active-duty force of 1.4 million and
    a reservist force of 2.8 million, India can call upon a deep pool of manpower to prosecute
    any war. India also possesses a formidable air force,
    with 590 fighter aircraft, 804 attack aircraft, and a huge fleet of surveillance and transport
    helicopters that numbers at 720. India however suffers from a lack of attack
    helicopters, with only 15 in its inventory; this may prove to be a crippling deficiency
    in any attempt to combat a Chinese/Russian incursion over its mountainous northern and
    eastern borders. India does however maintain a force of 4,400
    combat tanks, of which about half are modern or semi-modern T-90s, and the indigenous Arjun
    main battle tank. India is also equipped with a staggering number
    of towed artillery, 4,100 pieces meant to make it impossible for their Chinese rivals
    to penetrate Indian defenses across the mountain gaps of its north-eastern border. Its naval forces include one aircraft carrier,
    14 frigates, 11 destroyers, 22 corvettes, and 16 submarines, a sizable collection of
    naval hardware that its immediate threat- China- would be hard-pressed to defeat. Next up is China. China is the most populous nation on earth
    and maintains an active-duty force of 2.2 million, with a reservist force of 510,000. With an air force totaling 1,125 Fighter aircraft,
    1,527 attack aircraft, and 281 attack helicopters, China has a serious advantage in the air over
    India; yet China’s pilots are undertrained compared to their Western counterparts, and
    forced to fly under strict supervision from ground controllers, a huge liability in fast-paced
    modern air combat. China also has a force of 7,700 tanks, and
    6,246 towed artillery backed up by 2,000 self-propelled artillery, mostly ballistic missile launchers
    which would pose a significant threat to Indian and American forces. On the sea, China maintains a significant
    force, with 1 test aircraft carrier not rated for combat operations, 50 light frigates,
    29 destroyers, 39 corvettes, and 73 submarines. While larger in number than Indian naval forces,
    China lacks the ability to maintain long-term logistical support for any deployed ships,
    meaning only a small number of them could operate far from China’s shores for longer
    than a few weeks. Underpinning China’s military might is also
    the fact that its military is severely affected by systemic corruption, so much so that China’s
    own leadership doubts the ability of the Chinese military to fight and win a major war against
    a near-peer power such as India. On to Russia. Russia has the world’s second most powerful
    military, with an active-duty force of just over 1 million personnel and a reserve force
    of 2.5 million. With 818 fighter aircraft and 1,416 attack
    aircraft, Russia’s air forces are formidable, but would be severely hampered in war by a
    lack of reconnaissance assets; as one Russian military analyst put it: “We have long-range,
    sometimes precision guided weapons, but we don’t always know where the target is.”. On the ground though, Russia maintains the
    world’s largest tank fleet, numbering over 20,000, however this figure should be taken
    with a grain of salt as the number includes many thousands of Soviet-era tanks that have
    long been decommissioned and would need weeks to bring into service, and even once operational,
    would be decades behind in capability, firepower, and protection versus modern tanks. Russia’s naval fleet has severely atrophied
    since the collapse of the Soviet Union, but it still maintains one aircraft carrier, 9
    frigates, 13 destroyers, 78 corvettes, and 62 submarines. Though Russian vessels are on the whole aging
    and plagued by maintenance issues, they are still armed with very modern and capable long-range
    missiles, making them a force to be feared. And finally, the world’s chief military power-
    the United States of America. The US enters the conflict on India’s side,
    with an active-duty force of 1.3 million personnel and 800,000 reserve personnel. With 1,962 fighter aircraft and 2,830 multirole
    aircraft, the US has almost double the air power of Russia or China; its naval aviation
    forces alone are on par with either nation. Its fleet of 973 attack helicopters ensure
    that ground offensives are well covered, and it is rare that an American infantryman finds
    himself without fire support. A proponent of blitzkrieg warfare, America
    also maintains a fleet of 5,900 tanks- almost all of them modern Abrams variants- and 39,000
    armored fighting vehicles, giving its ground forces unparalleled mobility. While lagging behind in numbers, America’s
    950 self-propelled, 795 towed, and 1,200 rocket artillery platforms often feature smart, precision
    guided munitions. In fact, of all the militaries in the world,
    the United States uses the most precision guided munitions, featuring them on almost
    every combat platform, and giving US forces incredible lethality. At the onset of war, Chinese and Indian border
    forces stationed across the length of the Himalayas would come into immediate conflict. While initial predisposition of forces favors
    the Indian army, the narrow roads and valleys of the mighty Himalayas would make anything
    but meager gains all but impossible. Artillery would devastate any sizable forces
    trying to move through mountain gaps, leaving most of the combat action to light infantry
    units supported by helicopters. With Chinese forces primarily stationed along
    its eastern coast, India would initially have the upper hand both in the air and on the
    ground. Only a few air bases on the Tibetan plateau
    could support combat operations for the Chinese, while dozens of airfields on India’s side
    could all put Indian planes within combat range of the front lines. It would take weeks for China to construct
    makeshift air fields and air bases, and then rebase the bulk of its air fleet to the Tibetan
    plateau, during which time, despite more advanced Chinese aircraft, Indian forces would enjoy
    a degree of air superiority. Yet the mountainous terrain would make it
    difficult for India to exploit that air superiority, and it would be forced to try to use ground
    attack planes when it would be far more efficient to use attack helicopters, of which India,
    again, only has 15. Once China relocated its mobile ballistic
    missile launchers to its western military regions however, India would face a withering
    barrage of ballistic missiles that it could do absolutely nothing to protect itself from. Airfields and military command and control
    nodes across northern and eastern India would be devastated, and India’s air force would
    suddenly find it very difficult to maintain hard-won air superiority, giving China the
    time needed to rebase its own air forces. Yet this is where China would have to make
    a very difficult choice: if it moves its forces to counter the Indian threat, it will leave
    the Pacific front completely vulnerable to American attack. Caught between the literal rock of the Himalayas
    swarming with Indian infantry, and the hard choice of leaving itself vulnerable to coastal
    raids by the American navy, China may look to its Russian allies for a solution. Russia would need to carefully consider the
    strategic situation. It’s Chinese allies desperately depend on
    the Pacific ocean for trade, importing most of their oil via sea trade routes and with
    domestic reserves not yet ready to support long-term war. With the majority of China’s trade and oil
    passing through the Indian Ocean, the Indian navy is as one analyst put it: “poised on
    China’s jugular”, and could easily cripple China with a naval blockade of Chinese shipping. America’s Pacific forces are, on their own,
    also more than sufficient to cripple the Chinese economy with a trade blockade, and China’s
    navy could not hope to counter America on its own. Desperately needing to ensure the oil lifeline
    stays open for its ally, Russia would likely try to bolster its Pacific fleet with large
    elements of its Northern fleet; yet, depending on the time of year, the arctic ice may not
    have melted enough to open up shipping lanes. Either way, whatever naval forces Russia could
    muster on the Pacific would be needed to aid the Chinese in fending off the American navy. This would still not be enough to save the
    Chinese economy however, as India’s navy would never have to leave home to stop all Chinese
    shipping in the Indian Ocean. With a very limited capability to support
    its own navy far from its shores, China could at best scrounge together a small battle group
    of destroyers and cruisers with perhaps a few nuclear submarines to try and break the
    Indian blockade; yet with India operating so close to home shores, it could take advantage
    of shore-based air power and make quick work of any Chinese task force. In the end, China could not hope to stand
    against naval blockades by both the US and India, even with reinforcements from the Russian
    navy. This is China’s glaring Achille’s heel: its
    almost complete reliance on the sea for trade and oil, and why China has been ambitiously
    undergoing its modern ‘silk road’ infrastructure development program with friendly nations…
    with very mixed success. Caught between the threat of raids on its
    Pacific coast by the US Navy, and Indian forces pushing through the Himalayas, China would
    likely choose not to deploy its ballistic missiles to the West, as even if India managed
    to break out of the Himalayas, China’s western territory is largely of little economic value. It would be far more prudent for China to
    try to keep America’s carrier groups at bay with its DF-21 ballistic missiles, though
    China has still, to date, failed to show it has the capability to follow through on the
    threat of its ballistic missile forces by displaying a mastery of the the various tracking,
    recon, and targeting systems and assets needed to go from launch to successful kill, or the
    ability to properly defend them from US attack. At best, the Sino-Russian alliance could hope
    to hold India at bay in the Himalayas, and could likely even push India back, once Chinese
    and Russian personnel created enough forward air bases on the Tibetan Plateau to support
    offensive operations. Yet Chinese and Russian forces would be limited
    to advancing only as far as the Indian foothills on the western edges of the Himalayas; the
    narrow passes and undeveloped roads through those passes would not make it possible to
    transport large amounts of hardware into India itself, while India could hold vast amounts
    of tanks and artillery on its plains ready to crush any advance into Indian territory. In short, it would be guaranteed suicide to
    try to break out of the Himalayas for both the Chinese and Russian forces. Meanwhile, India and the US could starve China
    into submission by devastating its economy through naval blockades. It would take weeks for the US to degrade
    Russia’s and China’s naval and air forces enough to attempt an amphibious assault against
    either nation, but the high casualties would make it a very unappealing proposition. Instead the US could comfortably sit back
    and bottle the Russian fleet up while systematically destroying the Chinese fleet- leaving their
    Indian allies to continue denying China’s desperately needed oil imports. A US/India and Russia/China war would end
    with very little territory gained or lost on either side, and with staggering amounts
    of casualties for Indian and Chinese forces. The US navy would likely see significant casualties,
    but both Russia’s and China’s navies would be all but completely destroyed. China and India’s economies would be devastated,
    but China’s specifically could face a catastrophic collapse that could even lead to the end of
    its Communist Party’s rule. With so much to lose and practically nothing
    to gain, neither side would ever seriously consider such a war, but if they did, China’s
    inability to protect its sea trade routes would make one side the clear victor. So, do you foresee a different outcome in
    this hypothetical matchup? Let us know your thoughts in the comments! Also, be sure to check out our other video
    called The 10 Weakest Armies in Asia in 2018! Thanks for watching, and, as always, don’t
    forget to like, share, and subscribe. See you next time!

    Articles

    Big Crankbaits…Big Fish?

    September 14, 2019


    [music] welcome folks we’re out here at
    Roosevelt Lake again you’re fishing with Gary Senft today hey it’s a little late
    for this but we’re gonna try it anyway I was catching some worm fish Texas
    rig fish in ten, twelve, fourteen feet of water so I haven’t done a deep water
    crankbaits show yet and I’m gonna use this bill Norman DD 22 and we’re gonna
    pound some rocks with this baby so we’ll see if we can’t catch a few and that’s
    all we need is just a couple fish and see what happens we’re down here you
    probably can recognize the area down by the dam so as long as I can get down and
    hit these rocks right here that you’re going to be looking at I’ll see if I can
    get any strikes with this alright now let’s get to work and let’s catch a
    couple fish alright there we go long cast are very good at this
    so you can get down and really dive this down now I’m in 15-16 feet of water and
    you got to kind of play with when you can get this thing down and start
    hitting some rock that’s the secret gotta bang the bottom
    with this thing once in a while you can catch one suspend it you know if the
    fish are out way on the lake and you’re trolling or something you can catch them
    and suspend it but usually when you’re in a boat like this you need to get this
    down now this resembles a big shad it could be a gizzard shad or a regular
    shad so I didn’t get anything on the bottom net so I need to pull up I’m
    gonna go back up in the 10, 12, 13 feet of water I’m still hanging out there in 17
    18 feet of water once you cast way out there then you can fill that bottom
    that’s what you need you need to be hitting that bottom boys shad color crank bait is what I got on
    cast it way way out there look at my graph 14 feet of water this is a DD 22
    but I’m fishing 14 pound line so if you want it a little bit extra depth you can
    lower your rod down there okay I’m banging the bottom big time right now sometimes when you get hung up on one of
    these rocks and you jerk it like this then you can you could get one all right
    so we’re coming up on a little rounded corner there a point this is one of the
    best place to catch one right here on these little corners get that baby down start hitting the bottom there he is! Oh No! got me! oh no he came off! he got in a tree I think I still got him on I’m not sure oh yeah he’s fighting now sometimes you
    know when you get these on and you’re way out there those long cast that’s
    that’s what that’s where you can get caught on some of these little trees and
    scrubs oh here he comes that’s another bad fish okay come on up baby that’s not too bad Oh Man got him right in the side
    of lips here. he wasn’t that deep but he was 15 feet
    and those hooks are sharp nice little over two pounds boy he got nice little
    gut on him so this is what you can catch with a crankbait that’s let’s go back to
    work see if we get another one swim run away baby oh he’s going down slow over sure alright here we go shad brother crankbaits long casts right
    on these corners this is this is the spot okay here we go it’s coming in alright here he comes Boy sometimes you just get them down there and this bait is so big
    they’re just going deep sometimes the catfish will hit these baits too he’s
    diving down oop there I see color white there he comes whoa here he comes guys
    well that’s a nice one look at that one nice big old crank bait fish [splas] oh my god
    that’s a good one he’s been caught before somebody’s had a stringer in the
    bottom of this holy mackerel never got this look at that yeah it’s already spawned out just
    a nice nice bass let’s let him go go back down baby
    man didn’t take him long like I was saying sometimes you can hear the school
    of bass you know on these corners and there and there’s not much of a point
    here but but there’s enough that they could be schooling out on the outside of
    this so when I first throw it in I start reeling to get that baby down okay I’m
    just in 17 feet and I’m banging bottom long casts helps to have a lot of line on
    your reels guys don’t don’t go out with half a spool of line and expect to fish
    fill that sucker up with line it’s uh I see too many guys I take too many guys
    out that don’t put enough line on their poles you need to have need to have that
    thing almost full you know it could be an eighth of an inch down but way out there there’s some big old
    boulders here if I can hit some of these yeah I’m looking at a lot of Fish here in
    18-19 feet of water they could worm these fish and catch them but today we’re
    trying to catch them on a crankbait so I might have to make a number of extra
    cast folks it’s when you come up with little points like this right here these
    are dynamite just these little corners like this you know this has some
    boulders and some rocks coming way out on the point so I’m going to just back
    up I’ve been going with the wind but I’m gonna back up and get this over the
    outside of this rock area here and it’s got some deep rock coming that’s your
    ideal spots just like we had that rounded corner back over there this is
    more or less a sharp corner so we’re gonna back up and make a few cast on
    this will overshoot it about 50 feet and then we’ll just run this right down till
    I hit those rocks I think I went a little bit too deep on that one all
    right let me try another another cast all right here we go we’ll go a little bit shallower come
    across and hit those big old rocks right there there’s the rocks ok! whoa! alright! he’s coming in I’m just gonna swing this one oh man
    that’s a chunker boy be careful when you go to grab these
    fish because holy mackerel guys look at this fish look at his tail
    I wonder if he’s spawning who knows so I’m gonna let some more air go out let
    him go back down there he goes boy he wasn’t caught that deep I mean he
    was down about 15 feet 12-15 feet so there’s that point again I’m gonna get
    over close to that point sometimes when I’m real shallow what I do when I get
    one on is I take the trolling motor and I head out deep water because there’s so
    many of these little snags bushes on the on the lake right now until you get down
    quite a ways I said this is a perfect little point comes out here as it comes
    out I go about ten feet off the rocks and then this crankbait gets down and
    just bangs into those rocks just bounces off of one and another just… it’s perfect coming across here there’s
    a lot of these little little areas here though it’s just bouncing off there like
    crazy there’s so much of these rough cut rocks that you’re looking at the bank
    here in my background like like say that big one right up there you come across
    that up on the bank if you can hit that just slow down and kind of jerk your rod
    off that you know and as you jerk it off that’s a lot of times that’s when
    they’ll bite it so I’m having to put the boat pretty close to the bank because
    I’m in 15-16 feet of water but you can see how steep it is here it drops off
    really fast all right see that lives those rocks coming down there let’s get
    this down wind real fast hit the rocks oh my god is that a fish it is
    I couldn’t tell there was a rock or a fish coming in sometimes when you hit
    these rocks and stuff and these smaller fish hit you can’t tell if you got a
    what size they are I’m just… he’s 15 feet I’m just oh he’s
    not that big but he’s a 2 pounder one and a half let’s get him in the boat make sure he doesn’t get me with the
    rest of the hooks this is the smallest one but you catch little ones on these
    baits too you know so you know what I’m gonna close this show just try this out
    sometime just get close to the bank and and make sure you’re you can do it at
    all the lakes Bartlet, Roosevelt just make sure that you’re close enough that
    you can bang those rocks if you’re fishing way out there sometimes you can
    catch them but chances are not you’re not gonna you need to bang these rocks
    and take a chance to losing that lure So I’m gonna let him go just want to thank
    you for watching fishing with Gary crank baiting [music] you you

    How Ignition Coils Work
    Articles, Blog

    How Ignition Coils Work

    September 10, 2019


    Conventional automobiles burn gasoline in an internal combustion engine and convert that energy into motion but first a spark is needed to ignite the fuel mixture. This demonstration shows how twelve volt battery generates the high voltage required to create such a discharge. The heart of the car’s ignition system is its ignition coil. This coil is a kind of transformer a device that transfers voltage from one circuit to another either as a lower voltage or in the case of the ignition coil as a higher voltage. It does this by creating a changing magnetic field that induces a current in a conductor exposed to that field. A principle known as electromagnetic induction. Like other transformers an ignition coil consists in part of two coils of wire both wrapped around the same iron core. The inner or secondary coil has far more turns of wires in the primary or outer coil Making this a “step up” transformer that will convert the batteries 12 volts into some 40,000 volts of electricity. First we will close the knife switch to create a circuit that includes the battery and the induction coil. Although electrons move from negative to positive the convention is to think of electrical current as moving from positive to negative so that’s how we’ll show it here. As current flows to the primary coil the magnetic field gradually builds up around it as well as around the secondary coil housed inside. If we open the knife switch to stop the current. The magnetic field suddenly collapses. Due to the principle of electromagnetic induction this rapid change induces a surge of current in the secondary coil Which streams out and jumps the spark gap in the circuit. There is something else happening with the knife switch is opened – let’s watch again. This time keep your eyes on the capacitor. A simple coil of wire that can store electricity. When the knife switch opens and the field around the coil collapses That collapsing field around the primary coil induces a surge of current called back EMF in the primary coil. This unwanted surge of electricity travels back toward the switch. The job of the capacitor, called the condenser in auto ignition systems, Is to safely absorb the back EMF and prevent the surge from reaching the switch and creating a damaging spark across those points.

    Articles

    Boating Education In Connecticut Schools

    September 7, 2019


    [MUSIC PLAYING] JERRY DESMOND: Hi, and
    welcome to Better Boating in Connecticut. My name is Jerry Desmond. I’m your host today. And we’re bringing
    you a show today where we’re going to
    visit some schools here in Connecticut that actually
    do boat building as one of their opportunities
    for their students. And one of the schools
    here in Connecticut that do an exceptional job
    is Guilford High School, here in Guilford, Connecticut,
    right near our shoreline. And I’m here with Dave
    Hackett and Cara Mulqueen, two of the teachers–
    instructors– here that oversee the students
    you see behind me in the boat building process. So maybe for a second
    I’ll tap in to you, Dave, you could tell us a little
    bit about the program, a little bit about the
    boat building process. DAVE HACKETT: A few
    years ago, because we live on the shoreline, I
    developed a boat building course that was
    strictly for that. But then we thought
    about combining that with other disciplines. So this class that
    we teach now is a combined
    inter-disciplinary class with combining
    English and Maritime history with boat building and
    Cara can speak more to that. CARA MULQUEEN: We
    set up the class so that it’s a
    metaphor of the ship and the sailor and the sea. So we study Maritime
    literature in combination with the process of building
    boats and designing boats. And this is our
    fifth year and it seems to be going really well. It’s one of the most popular
    classes at Guilford High School. JERRY DESMOND: And that makes
    it a little unique, too, because you’ve combined
    literature or English with the boat building
    process, so it becomes an academic
    experience, as well as a practical experience
    of building boats. DAVE HACKETT: And there’s
    a lot of carryover when you look at risk management. We talked about the Bounty– the present-day Bounty–
    and when they went out to sea, what was important,
    should they have had more life jackets, should they have had
    the generators all working before they sank? CARA MULQUEEN: So
    it’s a nice connection with things in history and then
    some of the practical things with boating and boating safety. JERRY DESMOND: And that’s
    great and Dave, also, you are one of our instructors here. You teach the actual
    boating license class here in this school, as
    many of our schools do, and we’re always looking
    to grow that program. And that’s coming along well and
    we thank you for all your help there as well. So as we move along
    here, I just wanted to have the students
    tell us their name and a little bit about
    their boating experience, give them a chance
    to say something quick about their
    life in boating, and I’ll start with you. ANTHONY: All right, my name’s
    Anthony and before this class, I’ve only ever been really
    kayaking and paddleboarding. ADDISON: Hi, my name’s
    Addison and since I was little I’ve been sailing. AUSTIN: Hi, my name’s Austin
    and I’ve been on boats for pretty much my whole life. ERIC: My name’s Eric
    and I don’t boat. SAMIR: My name’s Samir. I like to go out on kayaks and
    canoes, primarily for fishing. JOSH: My name is Josh. I have been powerboating for
    about three or four years now. ERIC: My name’s Eric. I’ve been boating
    for about two years. SAM: My name’s Sam
    and I primarily kayak. AUSTIN: My name is Austin. I grew up on the water
    and I pretty much live on a boat in summer. DANIELLE: My name is Danielle. I’ve been boating
    since I was little and we’d go sailing
    and powerboating. JOHN: My name’s John. I primarily kayak, but
    getting into some skiffs now, building one, so
    that’s exciting. HANK: My name is Hank. I mostly just canoe and kayak. MACKENZIE: My name is Mackenzie
    and I’ve grown up on the water. TIM: My name’s Tim and
    I’m building a kayak. DENNY: My name’s
    Denny and mostly I just go boating for fishing. JERRY DESMOND: That’s great. OK, so as we see,
    a lot of you here have an interest in boating
    already that brings you into this class. So maybe we could take a minute
    and talk about the process. How In general, how
    does this process go as far as boat building goes? Do you want to
    address that, Dave? DAVE HACKETT: Sure, we start
    with them picking a boat. And they have to follow through
    the plan and go through, but we’ve gotten
    to the point where I can let them build a
    number of different boats. We have skiffs. We have kayaks. This year, we have
    four paddleboards and we’ve got two hydroplanes
    in the works, as well. So they can do quite
    a variety of boats. And the process is
    always taking the plan and going through step-by-step
    from a large loft of it on the floor, and then
    cutting out the pieces and going through. And they’re about 3/4
    of the way through. You can see this
    skiff has taken shape. This kayak has taken shape. And we look forward to–
    we do a launch day in June at Lake Waramaug and we take
    them all out for the day and test them. And it’s a lot of fun. JERRY DESMOND: Thanks, Dave. The other thing I just
    wanted to mention quick, if you all are working on
    taking the boating course and going through
    the process, have you all heard about the new Safe
    Waterskiing Endorsement law? You have? All of you know that, today, you
    have to be 16 to drive a boat and pull a skier,
    where it used to be you could be 12 and
    operate all the boats? Do any of you do any
    water skiing or tubing? You do? So you’ve been
    telling your friends and telling your family
    a little bit about that? That’s good. So when it comes to that– in your class, you’ve learned
    all about life jackets, I’m sure, and about the
    importance of those. We’ve had a lot of people
    we’ve lost not wearing life jackets over the years. You guys are all aware of that. Spread that word around
    a little bit too. That’s good. So with your skills,
    here, I’m just going to select some people– maybe I’ll start with you. The skills that you learn
    in this boat building, what do you plan on using
    those skills for going forward? Is there something
    you plan on doing? DANIELLE: Well I didn’t
    know how to woodwork at all before this class, so the
    whole process of making my boat and learning how to use all
    the tools and the machines has really helped me
    learn how to woodwork, so hopefully in the future,
    I can use that for something. JERRY DESMOND: That’s
    great, yeah, it’s not just the boat building skill. It’s also about learning
    how to build in general and that’s very
    helpful, obviously, in life, down the line– whether it’s your
    home or anything else you might be building. How about you? JOSH: I’m actually pursuing
    a career in the fire service, so having a general
    knowledge of hand tools and just carpentry
    in general, is good to be more comfortable
    with working with tools and working with
    your hands in order to further your education. JERRY DESMOND: That’s great. You’re going to go
    into a service– it’ll be a very valuable
    service– that’s awesome. So in addition to that, we
    talked about life jackets. We talked about the new
    Waterskiing Endorsement law. What are some of the
    precautions that you guys take– do we have powerboaters here? You are, one. And how many people
    are paddleboarders? You are, you are. So I’m going to start with you. I’ll come to you
    in a little bit. What are some of the
    things you do to stay safe when you’re
    paddleboarding out there? ANTHONY: Well, first
    thing I do is tell people I’m going to be going. It’s really important
    that you let people know you’re going
    because if you just disappear, and no one knows you’re boating,
    then if something happens, it can be really devastating. After that, make sure you
    have your proper equipment like your life
    preserver, in case you need a flashlight to signal
    people, just general stuff like that. JERRY DESMOND: The first one you
    mentioned was the Float Plan– officially known
    as a Float Plan– and you leave that
    with the family. That’s very
    important, especially as young students, all of you
    are very anxious, obviously, to go out and have fun. Sometimes Mom and
    Dad aren’t around. You need to let
    them all know where are you going to be because
    so many times you’re anxious to go out there,
    but if something happens, you do want to know
    where someone is. And those life jackets, you’re
    wearing that all the time, I’m sure, on that paddleboard. Who else, let me see, who
    is a powerboater here? There you are. So what are some of
    the things that you do to stay safe on the water? AUSTIN: Well you have to
    make sure you have a life jacket for every person in the
    boat, some signaling device or sound making device,
    you want to make sure you have fuel, obviously. JERRY DESMOND: When
    you have friends– do you have friends that come
    out on the boat with you? When they come on
    board, do you do any type of briefing
    and telling them a little bit about where
    the safety equipment is and how they work on
    your boat when they come? What do you do to
    keep them safe? AUSTIN: Well, most of my friends
    are also like fellow boaters, so they know how to work
    the life jacket and stuff, but obviously, if I brought
    someone that was never on a boat, you’ve got to tell
    them how to work a life jacket. JERRY DESMOND: Very
    good, OK, thank you. So can you tell us a
    little bit– maybe Cara, you could tell us a little
    bit about the boats here. When will these
    boats be completed and what happens to these
    boats after they’re done? CARA MULQUEEN: Well,
    theoretically, the boats will be completed before June 1. And the last part of
    it– the finishing part– is really exciting. We received a grant
    from West Marine to help us out with some of
    our boating finishing products. So that’s exciting. So they name the boats
    and part of the final exam from the English side of it, is
    they present their boats to us before they set
    sail on the water. And they tell us a little bit
    about the development of them, why they were named
    what they were named, and it’s really a fantastic
    day and a nice closer for the school year. JERRY DESMOND: And
    it’s a fun activity. It’s a great activity. And you’ve got a great
    set-up here, great. It looks like all
    your boats– you’ve got several boats in development
    here and that’s wonderful. I want to thank all of you
    for having us here today and exposing and
    showing your program and how it works and all that. We’re going to be going
    to visit another school right after this. And so before we go and
    before we take a break– we’re going to take a public
    service announcement break here in a second– but before we go, because of
    the importance of those life jackets, maybe we can
    give everybody a one last “Always wear your life jacket”? What do you think? Can we do that? OK, let’s do that. So 1, 2, 3– ALL: Always wear
    you life jacket. JERRY DESMOND: Bye, bye. Little wave. We’re going. Thank you. SPEAKER 1: We love it. SPEAKER 2: And it’s so much fun. SPEAKER 3: It’s exciting. SPEAKER 4: [SPEAKING SPANISH] SPEAKER 3: Why do I have
    to wear a life jacket? SPEAKER 5: We wear
    it to be safe. SPEAKER 2: I’ve got mine on. SPEAKER 1: We’re teaching
    our kids about safe boating. SPEAKER 6: [SPEAKING SPANISH] SPEAKER 4: Hey. SPEAKER 5: We all
    love this life. NARRATOR: Wear it
    and love the life. This message brought to you
    by the National Safe Boating Council. JERRY DESMOND: Welcome back to
    Better Boating in Connecticut. As I said earlier,
    we’re visiting schools that are
    doing boat building programs within the school
    and educating students on boats safety. We’ve come down the 95
    corridor and we’re down at Hand High School in
    Madison, Connecticut. And we’re here today to
    talk to some of the students here who also have a
    boat building program. And first, starting
    off, I think I’d like to let the students here
    say their name and a little bit about their boating experience. Maybe we could do that and
    I’ll let you take the mic and kind of pass it along. So just pass it along. Give your first name and– JEREMY: I’m Jeremy
    and I’ve boating for pretty much my whole life. ZACH: I’m Zach and I just
    go out fishing sometimes. That’s about it. BRENNAN: I’m Brennan and I
    took this class because I love working with my hands. JOHN: I’m John. I’ve been boating for six years. ADAM: I’m Adam and I both boat
    all the time in the summer. EMILY: I’m Emily and
    I have no experience. VINCENT: I’m Vincent
    and I love water. JAMES: I’m James
    and I like to sail. KYLE: I’m Kyle and I’ve been
    boating for my whole life. NICK: I’m Nick and I’ve
    basically just grown up around the water my whole life. CHASE: I’m Chase. I’ve grown up on
    boats and I love it. JERRY DESMOND: Thanks, guys. We just came from
    Guilford High School and now we’re here at Hand. It’s pretty competitive
    between the two schools, is that fair to say,
    all your sports? I’m sure in the boat
    building world, that might be a little bit going on, too. They’re both programs
    that are trying to feed off of each other. So I want to first start
    off for a minute talking with Brian Amenta and
    I got Kim Connor here. Brian, can you tell
    us a little bit about the history of the
    program– how it started and how it works? BRIAN AMENTA: Well
    basically this program started when I started
    working at Hand High School in the late ’90s. So I wrote the
    curriculum as part of a graduate course in
    technology education, and then introduced it. And then from there,
    it just took off. Way back in– I think ’98, ’99– I contacted, what was DEP at
    the time, which is now DEEP, and got certified to teach
    the safety boating part of it and introduce that into
    the curriculum, also. And ever since then,
    I think we’ve probably built over 100 canoes and
    skiffs and kayaks and things that you see laying around here. JERRY DESMOND: Yeah,
    you mentioned also that you do the boating safety
    class here under our umbrella here. And you teach the licensing
    course here, if you will. And that’s great. We are always looking
    to expand to schools– to having teachers in
    there become certified to teach the course and give
    opportunities for the students to get their certificates
    right in the school. Kim, you get assigned
    to certain programs around the school
    and certain classes. This is your first time
    in boating, so how’s your experience been here? How do you like being down here? KIM CONNOR: I think
    it’s a lot of fun. I like doing more active
    things rather than sitting around all day. My family, as well, has
    grown up on the water. My son goes to Maine
    Maritime Academy and so this is fun for me. JERRY DESMOND: That’s
    great and this is a fun class for the students, too. And they’re learning a lot of
    skills in this class, as well, as well as safety. Yeah so maybe you’ll
    take another second and you could tell
    us again, Brian, a little bit about the process. Can you tell us about what
    happens during the process from beginning to end here– just a few things on
    how it goes along? BRIAN AMENTA: As far as
    the building of the boats or the class itself? JERRY DESMOND: The
    building of the boats. BRIAN AMENTA:
    Basically, what they do is, I have a series
    of plans that they can choose from, from kayaks all
    the way up to a 16 foot skiff. And they choose whichever
    boat that they want to build. And then we put together
    a materials list and we go back and
    forth looking at costs and those kinds of things. And then from there, we
    start the lofting process. So if you look, most of
    the boats that we build are out of plywood because of
    the short time that we have. So we only have 60 days to
    work with, so they lay out or they loft up all their
    designs on the plywood. Then we start cutting them
    out and then basically get to the point where they’re an
    actually– a finished boat. And if you look around, you
    can see normal lumberyard type materials– so two-by-fours
    and plywood and mahogany decking and deck screws. And what that does is
    it keeps the cost down. But we still use the same boat
    building process, if you will. So that’s a little bit about
    how that comes together. JERRY DESMOND: That’s great. Now, when you finish these
    boats, do you launch them? Do you test them? What happens to these
    boats when you’re done? BRIAN AMENTA: Basically,
    the kids take them home. So we have a limited time. We only have a 60 day course. So we’re on a trimester schedule
    instead of a normal semester schedule. If we have time, we’ve put
    them in the local Bower farm or we have a little– kind of a– pond in
    front of the school. Sometimes we do that,
    but generally, it’s just kind of a rush to
    get the boat finished. JERRY DESMOND: When we were
    talking earlier with Guilford, they do have a session where
    they put theirs in the water as well. That might not be
    a bad opportunity to have the two boat
    building classes in some kind of competition. So you never know. Just for a second, let me
    just pick out a few people and ask a few questions. What is it you would hope
    to take away from this or what do you take
    away from this class? What kind of skills or
    opportunities or things– what do you take away from this
    class besides producing a boat? ADAM: Just like learning
    with all the tools and stuff to build the boat. And then the safe
    boating course, obviously, gives us our license
    to be able to use the boats. JERRY DESMOND:
    And how about you? NICK: I’m kind of the same way. This is really the first
    Tech Ed class I really took. So a lot of just
    hands-on learning that is basic necessities you
    need to build anything. JERRY DESMOND: So you’re
    gaining skills here, not just for boat building,
    but for other skills as well, for building as well? Are all of you familiar with
    the new Safe Waterskiing Endorsement law. You know how old you got
    to be now to drive a boat and pull a skier? ALL: 16 JERRY DESMOND: 16, very good,
    so you’re getting there. And that’s all new stuff,
    started October 1, 2015. Do you guys do any
    skiing or towing? Do you do any that? You have friends that do that? So if you’re out in the water– do you have a boat? When you guys go
    out in that boat, what do you do to
    stay safe out there? What are some of the safety
    precautions you take? VINCENT: No drugs and alcohol. Obey the outlaws in a
    No-Wake Zone, not too fast. Always wear a life
    jacket when you’re waterskiing or
    wakeboarding or tubing, any dangerous activities. You don’t want to
    have any incidents. Other than that– I’m not really the driver. My friend is, but he obeys a lot
    of the laws and he stays safe. JERRY DESMOND: Who
    does have a boat here? Who has a boat that they drive– family boat– you
    got family– you do? So when you go out
    on that boat, do you have friends that
    go out with you? CHASE: Yes of course. JERRY DESMOND: And what do you
    do when those friends come on? Do you talk to them about
    safety before you go out? CHASE: Yeah, I mean,
    most of my friends have been going out
    with me and my family for a long time and some of
    them are boaters themselves. So if they haven’t been
    out with me before, we’ll talk about some
    safety precautions– where the life jackets are, and
    maybe, if we’re wearing them, just put them on at the dock. Maybe I’ll show them how to use
    the boat in case of emergency– something happens
    to me– just so they get a general idea
    of how to move it, if I fall overboard
    or something. JERRY DESMOND: So
    safety is obviously a very important
    thing in boating and that’s one of the things
    that we do as boating safety down in Old Lyme. And so I guess in leaving
    here, before we leave, I want to say, thank
    you for having us, the DEEP, here at your school. I hope that this class has
    excellent boats that come out, like they do every year,
    since the program started. And there’s one
    thing I always have everybody say before we go. We do a little blurt
    out to the public and tell them “always
    wear their life jacket”. So let’s do that on
    the count of three, let’s let everybody know that
    we’ll give a little point. We’ll talk about that. One of the most important things
    we can do in boating is what? ALL: Always wear
    your life jacket. JERRY DESMOND: Very good. Thank you very much. [MUSIC PLAYING]

    The Great Pacific Garbage Patch Is Not What You Think It Is | The Swim
    Articles, Blog

    The Great Pacific Garbage Patch Is Not What You Think It Is | The Swim

    September 1, 2019


    SCENES LIKE THIS ARE A DAILY REALITY FOR
    THE CREW OF SEEKER ON THEIR PACIFIC TREK. SOME ESTIMATES HOLD THAT BY 2050, THERE COULD
    BE AS MUCH PLASTIC AS THERE ARE FISH IN THE OCEAN. BUT WHAT IS ALL THIS JUNK, EXACTLY? WHERE DOES IT COME FROM? AND IS IT REALLY CONCENTRATED IN A GIANT ‘GARBAGE PATCH’ SOMEWHERE OUT THERE? MARCUS ERIKSEN IS AN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENTIST
    WHO HAS MADE IT HIS LIFE’S MISSION TO SOLVE THE PROBLEM OF MARINE PLASTIC. IT’S A GLOBAL ISSUE, BECAUSE PLASTIC ACCUMULATES IN GYRES, LARGE CIRCULAR CURRENTS THAT THREAD
    THROUGH THE WORLD’S OCEANS. What’s leaving land heading out to sea is
    all the single-use packaging: it’s the straws, the bags, the bottles, the cup lids, the stir
    sticks, all this junk that we use once and throw away. A plastic bottle leaving California will get
    to Japan in about three to five years and come back across the northern half
    of the North Pacific. That spinning mass of water is a gyre. Plastic trash will migrate to those zones
    and get stuck. We actually take boats out in the middle of
    nowhere, we drag our net behind the boat and we count the plastic particles that are floating. Working with ocean modelers, we can get these
    regional maps of how much trash is out there, what it is and where it is. BUT ANSWERING EVEN THESE BASIC QUESTIONS ABOUT MARINE DEBRIS HAS PROVEN TO BE SURPRISINGLY CHALLENGING. IN FACT, EVERYTHING WE KNOW ABOUT THE PROVERBIAL ‘GREAT PACIFIC GARBAGE PATCH’ STARTED IN 1990, WHEN A CONTAINER SHIP SPILLED 61,000 SNEAKERS INTO THE OCEAN. Realizing that a lot of these sneakers would
    never come to shore, that they would would just be stuck in this vortex, Curtis Ebbesmeyer, working with
    James Ingraham Jr. at NOAA, they’re the ones that came up with the term
    ‘Great Pacific Garbage Patch.’ CAPTAIN CHARLES MOORE IS OFTEN CREDITED WITH
    THE FIRST OBSERVATIONS OF THE PATCH, A CONSTELLATION OF MICROPLASTIC PARTICLES THAT CAPTURED THE PUBLIC’S IMAGINATION. Captain Charles Moore had described the area:
    he said, ‘Look, I’m in an area roughly twice the size of Texas where I’m doing my transects’
    and that hit the media by storm. There aren’t these islands of trash;
    they don’t exist. It’s more like a smog of microplastic particles,
    billions of them, very toxic over a wide area. EVEN WHEN THEY BECOME BRITTLE AND BREAK APART, PLASTIC PIECES PERSIST. UNABLE TO OXIDIZE OR BECOME WATERLOGGED LIKE
    METALS, WOOD OR PAPER, ALL TYPES OF PLASTIC ARE DESIGNED TO DEFEAT NATURAL DECAY. In general, high density polyethylene, number
    two plastic, is the most common plastic in consumer use, and it makes your soap bottles,
    it makes your toothbrushes, it makes many of the consumer goods that float out in the
    garbage patch. If we think in terms of all the plastic that’s
    been produced since 1950, since it’s a synthetic material, hydrocarbons, it’s probably still
    here today on the planet. DR. SARAH-JEANNE ROYER WORKS WITH
    DR. NIKOLAI MAXIMENKO AND HIS TEAM AT THE UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII TO TACKLE THE PROBLEM OF TRACKING TRASH. Most of the time, we will find only bottle
    caps and not the bottle itself because the bottle is made out of PET. It’s sinking because the density of PET is
    higher than seawater. DESPITE THE DRAMATIC AMOUNT OF PLASTIC THE
    CREW OF SEEKER HAS ENCOUNTERED, SOME ESTIMATES HOLD THAT 99% OF OCEAN-BOUND PLASTIC WASTE IS STILL UNACCOUNTED FOR. THAT’S WHY SARAH’S TEAM IS WORKING WITH
    THE SWIM EXPEDITION AND THE OCEAN VOYAGES INSTITUTE TO TAG AND TRACK THE WASTE THEY FIND. The Swim are using two different protocols. The first protocol is a visual survey of all
    marine debris they see from the vessel itself. Whenever they find an object that is large
    enough, they will get closer to the debris, they will take pictures of it. If there are numbers or lettering, they will
    share this information with us, so we can track back the origin of that debris. The second protocol is basically to attach
    a GPS buoy onto a marine debris to track their movement in
    the ocean. ONCE THE TRACKER IS ACTIVATED, IT ENABLES
    SCIENTISTS TO BOTH IMPROVE MODELS OF HOW TRASH TRAVELS  IN THE OCEAN, AND LEARN WHERE TO FOCUS CLEANUP EFFORTS. MOST OF THE TIME, SARAH AND HER TEAM CAN’T IMMEDIATELY TELL WHERE A PIECE OF PLASTIC COMES FROM. BUT THEY CAN LOOK FOR OTHER CLUES. We need to use an FTIR or micro-Raman spectroscopy. This spectrum is matching a spectrum that is found in the library telling us what is the type of plastic. It’s probably the dream of all scientists
    to have a satellite and a new instrumentation to be able to quantify the amount of plastic
    floating at sea. THE ENTIRE LIFE CYCLE OF PLASTIC IS POISONOUS. ITS MANUFACTURING PROCESS DEPENDS ON HARMFUL CHEMICALS, AND WHEN RELEASED INTO THE ENVIRONMENT, IT SOAKS UP EVEN MORE TOXINS, AND TRANSPORTS THEM FAR AND WIDE… INCLUDING INTO OUR BODIES. PLASTIC CAN CHOKE THE OCEAN’S ABILITY TO ABSORB CO2 FROM THE ATMOSPHERE,
    EXACERBATING CLIMATE CHANGE. Only 10 percent of the habitat is on land. The rest, 90 percent of the habitat’s in the
    ocean, and it’s totally unexplored for the most part. Imagining all the jungles, all
    the deserts, all the savannas, all the Rocky Mountains… the ocean would be nine times more. The idea that somehow it could be 50 percent
    plastic, 50 percent fish in a mere 30 years is horrifying. BUT THE SITUATION IS FAR FROM HOPELESS. ORGANIZATIONS ARE DEVELOPING INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS TO CLEAN UP OCEAN PLASTIC. MATERIALS SCIENTISTS ARE TURNING THEIR ATTENTION TO NEW PACKAGING SOLUTIONS. AND CONSUMERS ARE MAKING MORE INFORMED CHOICES EVERY DAY. How can we use our science to influence laws and policymakers? When you refuse the single-use plastics, it
    has an effect on your neighborhood, on your local watershed, and the ocean. Now, seeing the UN talking about it, seeing
    companies rise up and say, ‘We’re going zero waste.’ To see countries make a commitment to stop
    the flow of trash from land to sea… I feel optimistic that we can solve this problem. Be sure to visit Seeker.com/TheSwim to read
    daily updates from Ben Lecomte, track his progress in real time, and watch more videos
    about the science happening onboard Seeker. Click here for this next episode, and don’t
    forget to subscribe. Thanks for watching.

    Articles

    Billionaire James Simons: Conquering Wall Street with Mathematics

    September 1, 2019


    Welcome to the Welcome to this evening Main Event only event And so this will be This is part of you know of the American mathematical society meeting How’s the Western section That’s taken care of that’s taking place on campus this weekend And it’s also part phone The Bay Area Science Festival Endite School sponsored by the American met Society Newberry Essence Festival end Mathematical science research institute in Berkeley And I’m just going to introduce the introducer I’m the Hi Michelle happy Tuesday associate secretary and short of this meeting Can I introduce her tonight Is David Eisenberg who is the former president of the American Muscle Medical Society And currently Rector of the msri McMichael science research institute in Berkeley My great pleasure tonight to introduce Jim Simons Deer and now old friend He’s going to talk about luck and I want to talk about luck Two and I’ll start with a Asura personal story My father Leonard eisenbud was a physicist Enjoin the physics department Stony Brook in 1957 just one year after it started Stony Brook is a great place now But it has growing pains and it one point The math department was in such terrible shape Did the Provo sell he needed to have a committee of Outsiders to find a new chair and let no one in the department Never would do So they went searching for an outside chair Where is people applied And my father was on the committee that Was to make the choice And they made some pretty questionable choices Among the most inexperienced the young guy Jim Simons never done any ministration before and really Was too young for the job And they interviewed the candidates and Of The provos do I need to view Jim Courtney the gym Said you know of all the people I’ve interviewed you were the only one who actually seems to want the job When did indeed nobody else took the job and Jim did Talk about luck for Stony Brook I feel I’ve been touched by that look too and getting to know Jim PhD from Berkeley and 1958 with Bertram custon whom I saw in the audience a moment ago Where is where is bertram kostant Somewhere around No she left again 61 Does your your Wikipedia entries Fish He was the winner of the AMS veblen prize in 1976 is that the right thing He discovered the minimum manifolds Can have singularities Starting to mention seven Not such an obvious Construction No very famous for Troon Simon’s Theory which is applied in math and physics and all kinds of Unexpected ways In 1982 the change of life He founded Renaissance Technologies and In some sense the Amazing chapter really even more amazing chapter started then He Did nothing but use meth And a lot of talent people’s work Two How to become one of the richest men on Earth And is now been sharing his Wealth and his luck With the rest of us who are here And I will all share the lucky again and listening to Jim himself Gym This is a high thing okay I guess you can hear me thank you very much for Such a nice introduction Joe I’m going to Kind of talk about My life and its various peregrinations Travel about math and some of it about Common sense And some of it about good luck And then I’ll take some questions If there are if there are any Joe Joy I always liked math When I was little kid I didn’t Think of it as math just numbers and And having fun I But I Discovered xenos with it so this is proof of my Thoughtfulness as a child how I discovered Zeno’s Paradox at about 4 years old not knowing it was Anybody’s Paradox or not knowing what the word paradox meant But I learned from my father to my heart Not a car could run out of gasoline Can I set Well Should run out You could do is half of what you have and then you could use half of that then you could do is half of that you’ll never run out Panda I did it didn’t occur to me that you never got anywhere either but on the other hand On the other hand Chow My Family doctor Dr Kaplan He knew I was a bright boy and he said well you know right Jewish boy You should be a doctor you know that’s a great that’s a great field and I Wanted nothing less than to be a doctor And I said what I don’t really want to Doctor you know I want to do something like with engineering or math or something I didn’t know much I was about eight years old I said well you know you can’t make any money doing that stuff and I said And I you know it didn’t it I didn’t seem to be very much of an impediment at eight years old I wasn’t thinking about Making a lot of money I was just thinking that I did not want to be a doctor Which was a very good choice for me and it turns out for anyone who would have had the unfortunate news To be my patience cuz I would not Have done a very good job But I did like working and if my First job Was as a stock boy In Breck’s Garden Supply During the Christmas season They hired kids The few people and I got this job Stock boy Works down in the basement in this particular place Looking in a bring stuff up to the floor and putting stuff away But I was not a good stock boy because I could never remember where anything went that seem to be no Rhyme or Reason no water that wasn’t alphabetize or anything like that you just had a know where things were so The two people who ran it down there realized I was a failure As a stock boy but I was there so they said okay You can sweep the floor And I love that job so that I had A big push broom and sawdust and I could throw the sawdust on the floor and push the broom and walk up and down Keeping the floors clean and thinking which I enjoy to do You’re doing very much on it and I came to the end and Christmas was passed and there was time for me to leave Show this couple sat me down and said goodbye and sewing and asked me what I was going to do I was I think 14 And I said all I’m going to study mathematics I think I want to go to MIT Well they laugh very very hard and And I’m sure they were thinking this kid doesn’t even know whether dried sheep manure is at Is going to go to MIT and study mathematics I did I never got back to him and said see I did that but I did and I want to a mighty and end this study Mathematics and Realize that though you know one could be A mathematician But I really had an epiphany When I learned Stokes theorem no I guess you’re all math petition so you probably know Stokes their army integrate one thing over a boundary in your take is differential and you That’s the same as integrating that over the interior something and not You know it’s a great generalization of the fundamental theorem of calculus and Orcs And all dimensions And I thought it was The most beautiful thing Dr Manda And it really made me Appreciate Mathematics it made me want to become going to this field of differential geometry which I had Gradually learned existed NAA What seal the deal What’s a delicatessen Call Jack and Marion’s in Boston It’s not there anymore I’m afraid but it was quite a place and it was open very late at night and is Undergraduate we used to go there and hang out And eat Maybe at 2 in the morning cuz you got Young Young kids can eat at all hours us Some of you perhaps remember And butt Frequently Is singer and Warren Ambrose I guess everyone’s heard of the singer Ambrose wasn’t Older fellow he must have been fifty he seemed anxious to me although he was A great A teacher they would show up there And I work and I go over to some boat and drink coffee and Do mathematics I thought my God you know What a great life going to hear these Grant grown-ups you know and and that they’re doing the stuff they wouldn’t dress and Suits they just had Regular outdoor closed-end Said what what a life this is it 2 in the morning Over sandwiches talking about Matt so It was clear that that was the That was for me I graduated MIT I Graduated early but I stayed one more year graduate school But when I graduated witches 1958 see that’s where the 58 came from where was David he confused Those dates 58 I did something that Was actually An example of Having no common sense at all But it turned out that there was some good luck involved And those days motor scooters had just been Becoming popular you know Vespas and their Italian it was either a Vespa or a lambretta those one The two choices you had And out We decided I Anna Friend from Colombia South America that are Mighty front Was not a mathematician We decided to ride Motor scooters Will get motivated have them we didn’t even know how to How to ride motor scooters buddy filled it felt it couldn’t be that difficult We’re going to ride them from Boston De Buenos AIRES Yeah well boss they both begin with B you know Boston to Buenos Aires And we got the Motor scooters on a 3rd guy join the Gang And we We did get half way we’ve got to Bogota And that took seven weeks and I at least almost died I came extremely close to death I think I never told my mother that If my mother had the slightest idea of how dangerous that trip was she wouldn’t let me go but For some reason she did And So I got there now one of the themes of this talk is how important Partners are And people that you work with and so this fellow This Colombian boy And and his Friend Subsequently became my first Partners in a business venture which out which I’ll get to in a minute but Joe was It was lucky on that account But it’s Show little Signs of Common Sense Anyway I spent one year at MIT as a graduate student I thought I’d been at MIT long enough That I should go to Berkeley and meat turn the great geometer of the day And got a A proper education differential geometry since that’s what I So I went there and I got a nice Fellowship I went to Berkeley The only thing is it The churn did not go to Berkeley that your train was coming to Berkeley that year that’s why They said I should go there too Butchering perhaps knowing I was coming decided to go somewhere else for that Yeah I guess he was on sabbatical or something So I didn’t I didn’t see churn But I work with the cost and someone told me Bird costume was here Is he here No he’s not here I think Maybe you didn’t really see him But anyway I work with the neighbor talks about the first thing that I did When I got to Berkeley are very early Was well I got married Actually I got married Weather in a month of Getting there Add that was a wedding and we even got wedding presents so which would Cash so I had I thought we had some money And I thought well it’s just lying there we should invest it I didn’t know anything at all about investing but I knew that One could invest money So I went to Merrill Lynch And I was feeling now I was 21 years old And said I want to open an account and that would two stocks that I thought would be just terrific I want to buy these stocks Well I said okay and I bought the Stockton But I’m an impatient guy and after a month nothing happened they didn’t go down they didn’t go up they didn’t go anywhere so I was bored With that Sing So I went back and said well You know something that’s a little more lively that I could you know You have any ideas at all yeah I said the soybeans you should buy soy being so high I Had heard of soy beans I’ve never eaten one myself Tell if it turns out props most people haven’t ever Eating a sleeping but pigs eat them in great quantities Pausing song But I said well what does that mean exactly he’s a well you because giving you bye 5000 bushels that’s a contract is a Futures Market Iguys tallest Soybeans are gone Make a lot of money So I bought two contracts or soy beans And they did they went off I was making money they went down I was losing money I bet Solved seldom both I got nervous that I bought one contract I was going back and forth From Berkeley to San Francisco Early in the morning to watch the soybean Market And I got off early Was 8 in the morning already I was out I mean that was very early for a graduate student And And after a couple weeks I came to the most sensible conclusion Of my life I think I said I’m either going to write a thesis or trade soybeans could you couldn’t possibly do both And I Came to that realization at a good point I had a Very small profit Okay I’m closing up the prophet And I was years before I have a trailer to show being again although the occasion did arise Joe Then I went and worked on I couldn’t do but you couldn’t write a thesis And trade soybeans anyway I could Show Georgia driver’s test said it was very gratifying Experience I wrote it I’m sorry Bert’s not here But So I got some results Which I show to my professor They said all those are very interesting that’s nice Joe suggest that A question that’s open About Homeland on me groups anyone know what whole anomie group is probably login Anyway Yes okay so anyway it’s A group is associated to a connection on a on a manifold What’s on the tangent bundle you Compare all translate all around and come back to where you started on your move the tension space And it Was had just been shown All the possible and that’s Ali group Strike Group of linear transformation It has recently been shown That there was a list of all the possible candidates Fallin lyrics On an irreducible manifold one you couldn’t write as a product of two other remaining amount of false And that list Happen to include only groups that were transitive on the unit Spears everyone loves groups You would take any point on the sphere in the tangent space and bring it to Any other point so it would it would it was Transitive And so that was kind of a question will Why are they all transitive on on the spear And I said oh I had I want to Try that profit You don’t do that he said that’s very hard problem You know what’s up Braille tried it he couldn’t figure out So that was just like throwing gasoline on the fire this And by some miracle I did so that was a good thesis I was very pleased I’ve had some interactions with sing along the way cuz he was interested in that problem and We talked about a little bit Roach to each other And Sheldon Play I finished at and they hired me and I went to Mi Amour instructor But Location hours of instructor Nmit butt I still had this Shut up I don’t know urge to do something different and When I had been in Columbia on my motor scooter trip when we got the ball guitar and I saw Colombian my friend I was very exciting country could do anything there it seemed all kinds of things that could be Action one thing or another And I had this friend down there who’s very small talk to friends and I said you know you guys are to start a business And I said well I don’t know if I’m going to come down to Columbia and I won’t leave Until we find a business And not that I Had any money particularly to invest in this business how it turned out I did have a little bit And I stayed at two weeks we found a business They said they were going to that we going to do it the father of one of them Put up half the money I said okay great and my father and I put up a little bit of money And Then I went back to A mighty After those two weeks and of course it took a little while for all that to Mana Check Place I decided after that first year You’re all this is so exciting I’m I’m going to move to Columbia And work In this fat This place Another nutty idea and I took a job in the interim cuz that place wasn’t ready in fact wouldn’t have been ready for another 2 years or year-and-a-half Engineering place while some engineering Company so I quit the more struck the ship and my job was to Computers were just coming at my job was to calculate Bessel functions on a computer now I didn’t know what a Bessel function was at that time of though I certainly learned what it was they made antennas and they I needed Anyway was the most hideous horrible thing one could do was just calculate Bessel functions all day long So I began to really miss Academia I was friends with bottle with singer these Tyson So I set the singer you know I think I made a mistake and he said oh well Will put you on box contract bought was a great mathematician at Harvard in those days you had an NSF contract they were Very loose you could just Hire someone on the car I want to buy Watch contract And Add alarm went back and said okay I’ll let those boys run the factory I’ll I’ll I’ll just be oh Minority investor in I work at math night which I did I was working Honest David I mentioned minimal minimal varieties a minimum varieties are Manifolds that are have minimal area or volume depending on the dimension with respect to their boundaries Self soap bubble is available Variety in two dimensions of typical Frame a divot in soap you’ll get a film that’s going to minimize area And so I was studying that subject Kyla from first principles Almost all the work had been very The analysis But I was trying to understand it the geometry of of these things and end Was working slowly in Going along They hired me at Harvard to be Sister Professor showers at Harvard for a full two years once on Bots contract and once an assistant professor But I actually didn’t like her but I don’t know there was something of any Harvard men or women here today probably Yes there is some well maybe With you there I’d have liked it better But I don’t even know you But but I don’t know it was stodgy place and And also love that started the factory so I Felt I needed a change so I went There’s a place in Princeton that still going strong Call The Institute for defense analyses Arts a branch of the institute for defense analyses in there they would hire math Rotation and there was super secret it was a very highly classified place They worked on secret codes and ciphers in fact in those days you weren’t even allowed to say what they worked on so we just stuff But now it’s permissible to say that’s what they worked on And it was it was I didn’t know anything about codes and ciphers but I knew they paid a lot And you can spend half your time doing mathematics And as much as happy any other half you had to work on their stuff That sounded pretty good so we move to Princeton And well I love that job I loved everything about it I learned about computers I learned to First that I do not Would never know how to program a computer with any skill whatsoever But there were fortunately people who could I learned I like to make algorithms and think about test Sting things out on a computer Have you can crack this called with this Al Gore the most of the time it didn’t work Sometimes it did It was kind of exciting And I like the people and I Was still walking away Had minimal varieties And After Maybe tour Two years there are baby after my third year I saw this The famous problem in the subject of minimum varieties which At is David said I showed that you could Filling smoothly This is an codimension one in euclidean space so you and you’re quitting in space you have Of a boundary of one dimension lower and you want to Two Dimensions lower like a curve in three space without And you want to fill in And I proved that you could do that Smoothly Without without you know NTV weather Singularities True ambient dimension 7 So up to 6 dimensional surfaces in 7 dimensional Space Weather 5 dimensional boundary I guess It would work you could do it are uniform proof but in one dimension more My proof broke down and I suggested a counterexample Which turned out and I couldn’t prove it was a Couldn’t prove it was a counterexample it was locally stable but it might not have been globally stable. So it’s a beautiful thing you take The three sphere And you cross it with itself now you got 6 dimensional Mustang Sitting in In actual the 7 dimensional sphere in a space anyway that’s the boundary 6 dimensional boundary The cone on that which I busy since it’s a cone Clearly has a vertex in a singularity but that does minimize Volume 6 Tramadol shopping to Metro Volume + And then Child So that was a good Resolving publishes paper which was Everything I knew about minimum rise Search patents Viper but it was a It was a good paper and saw that was Of Very nice and What’s the David said I won the Belmont prize and that’s I guess what I what I wanted for some 2 years later And I was also doing good work for them it was great but it was the Vietnam War time You remember You won’t know about the Vietnam War and some of you Probably live through it And so Now we didn’t do any work that had anything to do with the Vietnam War as far as I knew although in fact God no Knows what they did with what we did cuz I never read any of the secret messages cuz we didn’t Have access to that stuff we just Try to crack the codes But but I didn’t like the war now Cho The boss of my boss was in Washington DC and he was a general named Maxwell Taylor Some of you probably remember Old Maxwell Taylor And he was had been a general now he been kicked upstairs he ran the institute for defense analyses And he wrote an article for the New York Times it was an Cover story in the magazine section of Sunday paper Power doing so great in Vietnam we’re going to win the war it’s very important Joseph let’s just hold still it’s a terrific country Well I mean I didn’t Think so And But I’m sure there were others who doesn’t think so But I wrote a letter to the time saying not everyone who works for General Taylor shares his views In fact I think the whole thing is stupid and I mean Loard’s what classier than that but But that was the effect of the letter and they publish that letter Eagle II I’m sure Because you know No one said anything Hear anything from my superiors I heard Money for my friends But okay But then a few months later A young guy came and sought me out he told me he was a reporter For Newsweek magazine I think it still exists but in these those days it was the One of the two big News weekly stat on Time magazine’s you’re doing a story Newsweek magazine On people who work for the defense department who are opposed to the war How do you say I don’t have many takers because But I wonder if you would I could interview you No I was 29 years old no one had ever asked me For an interview before And I thought out your course you’re going to be up So interviewed me And you’re not so the bottom line was I said well The rule is you have to spend half your time of desktop and you can spend happy time of Y Your own stuff and my algorithm Now is but I’m spending all my time on mathematics And when the war’s over I’ll spend an equal amount of all my time if their stuff so I’ll make it all up and see that’s that’s what I’m That’s what I’m doing yeah hahaha because And it wasn’t even quite true but it was close to being true anyway Then I did the only intelligent thing I had done that day I told my boss that I gave his interview it would it even more intelligent but I told him Before I Go Save the interview But I didn’t I told him after we just you did he said what what did you say I said well I told her about my half and half proposition Is all I got I have to call Taylor His boss he called Taylor My memory is a little faint On this point but I think he may have called him in my presence and maybe I had to leave the room but it seemed like only a A microsecond Before He told me you’re fired And I said well I said you know My title is permanent member of the A permanent member this outfit I can He said well Who used to be a temp right now should I tell you the difference between a temporary member and a criminal member is it a temporary member Has a contract 4minute member So I didn’t have a leg to stand on They may have given me a A week sober and try to remember what the deal was But they will probably more generous tonight anyway there I was I didn’t have a job I had to Wife three kids Yeah and no job but I wasn’t you know I’d approve this damn I know I could get an academic job And so I wasn’t too Terrified at the prospect was all kind of exhilarating actually Being fired I think it’s good once I you shouldn’t make a habit of it they should we shouldn’t make a habit of being fired but once is Raps Salutary Anyway I did get this David said This offer at Stony Brook to be chair and I thought that would That would really be fun as I’ve Said before I thought it would be better to be the fire Roar than the fiery And the department was not strong They had a great physics department at that I was a very new University and I had a wonderful time Building a department and and I met Frank Yang the famous physicist who was who was there and we became friends and We had an interesting interaction is so he would After a few months he invited me up to his office he was going to tell me what he was doing I didn’t know any physic Next but he was Arrow Nobel prize-winning Great man and I figured I’d go up Got a lecture And so I sat down and he told me what he was doing it covered the board with equations write and understand that God damn thing I didn’t Understand anything Benoni physics butt You know I looked and I looked try to look as intelligent as possible I thank you very much at the end and I went Back downstairs it we repeated the same thing in your two And then again and yes 3 but something happened in the middle of the lecture of your three Got it kind of shown me the same equations that we’re getting Familiar and then I realized I said stop stop right there Picture why should I see cars You’re trying to invent mathematics that’s was done 30 or 40 years ago What what he was doing Was In in Gauge Theory you use bundles and they have connections But I think he didn’t know but you could also have That was such a thing as parallel transporting and Hauling on me group and all that stuff and he was Torturously trying to create power translation In a bundle with a connection I said you know the mathematicians have done that he should lie Would they have ever done that why would Why would I Study that kind of stuff and I said well it was beautiful natural and it just came out anyway how can I answer that Accepted They just Came out of mathematics so That was a The great moment because He said okay so we had a 7 he organized the seminar of the members of The Institute for theoretical physics It was kind of a translation summer I said we say this you say that kind of thing and end He even wrote a glossary you even wrote some kind of book with all these These things but it was Was the smartest group of students I ever had it was not his whole faculty so I was But it was great and they gave me at the end of very thick dictionary cuz I’m a terrible speller they gave me one of these things Is it 100 lb you know and As a as a gift As a gift for that show in the meantime I was doing Geometry myself And I started working With the churn We have become He came in the second year and what I was at Berkeley having missed the first year but we became friends We didn’t do any any Science together but we became And And I had Well it’s Donnybrook come up with some So drama treant in three dimensions that look quite interesting I showed it to him I said all we can do this at all Dimensions this is very exciting it’s always so we work together And developed in wrote a paper in that was The roots of these turn Simonson variant switch That have seemed to Be used in a lot of places witches You know what example I mean here we did this man And We didn’t Thank you all it’s going to apply to This out of the other thing I do without maybe a little apply you know maybe how the mathematically built 200 as I suppose it was But The idea that it would find its way into physics 10 years later and and become quite ubiquitous I mean it’s in Condensed matter physics in high energy physics it’s in cosmology Return Simon’s term And You know I don’t know what to doing with it I don’t have the faintest idea but Mathematics that way and basic science is that what you do a piece of basic science And you don’t know where it’s going to go but if it’s pretty good science it it can Slate the surprising Surprising place I mean When Maxwell developed the Maxwell equations did television occur to him as a As a consequence I don’t I just wanted to know how the hell are these How’s this work and Obviously figured it out So I was doing mathematics What churn and then with a guy named Jeff cheater I grew out of that with the something called differential characters which now Is What time do the route of subject called differential call Knology Have you ever heard of that And we got we worked on that and it led to questions that neither of us could Figure out about Rational numbers are certain volumes with a rational or irrational We really wanted to figure it out we couldn’t Spawn a couple years Struggling with those questions I won’t take away they where they came from but in the meantime My investment in Colombia Paid off Chow Part of the company was sold I had a few bucks my father had more but we we we We had some money And My Colombian friends God knows why I said okay we have this money We want you to invest it for us No Where they got the idea that I would Be any better at investing for them The net broker at Merrill Lynch years ago I don’t know But I said fine I’ll do that And and I had a friend Who had been a mathematician and was now a commodity Trader And he seem to be doing pretty well Dry said Charlie We have this money Would you manage it Course I’m happy to Why not it was more than he’d ever seen So he thought it was good And so I made a deal with Charlie He was going to get 25% of the profits No fixed fee but 25% of the profits And I said but if we lose Much money and I said lose 25% you have to stop have to wait on a lose all the money so That’s a stop loss Okay What does I was walking out of His apartment shopping occur And I said oh Also if you make too much We’re going to have to stop I said well how much is too much It’s a reasonable question I said 10 times What we invested after your rapacious fee Well how could he say no Charlie said fine so that was the the other stopping rule We stopped on that basis after 10 months He had actually had multiplied the money by a factor I guess if 13 + when you take off to an anyway We actually make 10 times on money It was incredible it was just Completely lucky Hey Kingswell I know it was completely lucky But there was so Now I really Ghetto had some money and I had followed his work My father’s work carefully If I could never I had to Because he never quite knew where he was So I said okay I’ll keep the books every week I’ll tell you where you stand He’s okay that’s great it’ll take that My mind off that So I did that and so I learned a little bit about that and no soy beans in my youth And I thought okay Mathematics is driving me crazy Hi Recently gotten divorced I was on the wrong side of the first wife I was involved with another woman who Turned out to be my second wife and my present wife And I was frustrated with work site. I’m going to go into business and Be a Trader Hand How do I did I did do that and I brought I started doing some Training in that was working okay I got Some investors I brought in a guy From idea he was the best Crypt analyst in the world he was wonderful model-maker and so when he vacchi I don’t know if any of you have ever heard of the bomb Welsh algorithm or the EML grow them anyway it’s a famous Al Gore Vitamin statistics He was the bomb of bound well, so he was a very smart And I said you know you looking at these Commodity charge actually it was Currencies that we would try it again I seem to have some Shape to them they don’t look random to me Maybe we could bake some models they said okay But it turned out and we did we made a model to look like we’re going to be ok and to trade but we were doing fundamental Training in heat He hated the model build he’s a tie you know but he loved the fundamental friend he loved reading the news Skype isn’t reading the tickers and That and the new stickers and Getting ideas it turned out he was For a while very very good so We put the models aside for a while and We traded And we did very well we did very well But it was a gut-wrenching experience you don’t You know one day you walk in and you think you’re a genius, my positions are my way look up And the next day you walk in there against you and you feel yours you’re a dope how could I have done what I did and saw There was no Rhyme or Reason it was just you know you put your finger in the air and you try to sense which way though The wind is blowing I tell you one story to illustrate The craziness it was a time when gold Was going up Gold Head B Had been You couldn’t buy a sell gold and finally you couldn’t If the price was rising and it was rising and We had a deal where Lenny Lenny bomb and I well we’d each have the same When you have our own account I was the boss but we beat you at our own accountant in our own accounting fact we both bought Was supposed to be independent we both like Always going up It was it started a 200 300 400 $500 I got to $500 Which by today’s standards would be Like 15 or $1,800 And I said you know this is this is a very high price I’m getting out Can I show my hat but Lenny I think you should No You don’t know how hot is going to be you can’t miss is going to mrs. Going to go very high that’s okay So he stayed it was 600 It was 700 Who is 800 Does the $800 That day I happen to be talking to a friend of mine on the phone who was a stockbroker and hate Becky with my stock And I said how are things dick and he said oh well Define this morning My wife Lucy came into my closet and cleaned out all of my All tie clasps and cufflinks And went downtown to sell them I will Gault say I said you having a hard time and your family why is she so your wife Always You know she’s a jewel or I said yes I know that II said so she only has to stand in the Short Line You mean the Short Line is Don’t you know that people are lining up Standing for hours Selling that gold I should know I didn’t know that Thank you very much We had a phone in those days if you picked it up It was a different phone if you picked it up It went right to the floor Ubly commodity Exchange And I got Lenny in the office and I put the phone up to his ear and I said Lenny Salvador Packtite And he said No no no no I said Lenny I’m the boss salve Blankety-blank gold I was more infatic than that he said alright alright Sold the gold I may be with $810 All he was mad And The next day we came in And it opened at $830 A doll wings I told you By the end of that day it had dropped 25% it was down to $600 all in one day And it never of course one back Joe That is an example Love Common sense and very good luck A good luck if I hadn’t called my stockbroker the day I did Lenny would have held on to that gold one, it went back to 200 after a while we would have Who wrote it. Written it all the way down I think And so it was just plain luck that I have but it was at least common sense I thought of everyone in the world is trying to All that called How long can it be going up again Oasis There is such a thing of supply and demand So there it was So that was what it was like to be a fundamental Trader it was Stomach rash GymX I got you a Max who was a very well-known algebraist To come and work for us And He was interested in the models that Lennie is Jude And he got a good computer programmer and We built two models and and he showed that the models would use for currencies would work for all commodities And we were on our way with models and Well We Cap fundamental trading but more and more we were trading the models And finally it took about eight years The models were good enough and we went to all models And then we started the company This was a foreigner we started the company called Renaissance Technologies Which Has been going ever since And Has The 300 people that has 90 ph.ds And it’s a hundred percent 100 percent It’s been remarkably Profitable For long time in other mathematicians came in to help I don’t know if elwin berla campus here maybe some of you know he’ll one Henry laufer Joined us and they each Made important Important contributions Joe It has been Remarkably successful people say well what what’s the secret Well there a lot of little secrets because the way this works you have a lot of Smart Guys in Nike Inching away and getting a new idea here in a new ID there and your pilum together and soon you have An awful lot of little ideas that are independent of each other and you can You know you can make some make some progress But the I think Tell people that watch the secret sauce The secret sauce Was really in the first instance Having very smart people Working for the firm what we were Academic shotshells we had an idea of Who was a good scientist and who wasn’t And we brought in and continue to bring an excellent people not just mathematicians but Computer scientists statisticians Experimental physicists Astronomers we got 45 astronomers how good they look at data They can’t do experiments I have to You can’t make this stop bump into that star you just have to take it as it is and that’s the Panda Make model show Great sign We built a terrific infrastructure the computer guys are wonderful What we check in at at I think it takes an 9 9 terabytes a day of data Comes into that outfit And I’ll get started organizing and dished up to the researchers Chantel to Great infrastructure It’s an open atmosphere Everybody knows what everybody else is doing And every every week does a research meeting if you’ve had a good idea that you think it’s going to go somewhere you present it If it looks good Is it goes to a small meeting That it more carefully but There aren’t little groups with working in the dark all this is my little system and I want you to use it so And that’s the best way to do science I think in a collaborative and show you don’t immediately the first time he Have a thought you don’t run down the hallway saying I have a thought But you know you tested out a little bit But So I think that’s that’s a very good way to do things Everybody has a piece of the profits All the senior people own part of the Business and that I think is good too so We have very little turnover Panda And we tried everything we wrote worldwide We tried that with runs 24 hours a day Lock 7 days And the only Rule As we never Override No one ever comes in any day and says The computer wants to do this that’s crazy we shouldn’t do it You don’t do it because you can’t You can’t see me like that you can’t study the past and wonder whether the boss was going to come in and change Change his mind about something so You just stick with it and it’s and it’s That’s work Choke Well So obviously Make money And in 1974 with my wife Marilyn We started a foundation Chowder We been giving money away Maryland Hey we should have a phone So we had a foundation And it was a one-woman foundation it was in the Her dressing room and she had a little box With the records or someone she cheat Studied accounting She was a Actually a PhD in econometrics but you didn’t know anything about accounting And so she took a night course in accounting And I put something on the door for dressing and it was a wonderful cartoon It showed a media evil Setting Big castle Weather Tower And someone was Standing on the tower addressing the multitude sableux And one of the multitude people said to the his neighbor And to think he started life as an accountant So she started accounting And Whoever We both have to Foundation initially we gave money very broadly to Social causes to universities to variety of things But in 2004 just 10 years ago We decided to just focus on basic science and All the kinds of giving that we did Well done outside of the foundation and The foundation Gru And It’s it’s a very very good it’s a good foundation We have a large project On the causes Of autism to try to understand that it’s really a lot of genetics and Neuroscience We have Les chapeaux atoms in in various aspects of life science We have a math and physical science program in fact that David eisenbud Who sitting right there help to organize for us What we have various kinds of Grants and programs in one Another And we also started in the last few years Goal driven collaborative projects so that’s a As its Stated That’s a collaborative project consisting of maybe 10 20 30 40 sometimes 50 scientists Typically in different places But I’ll working towards a common end We have one on the origins of life Which is underfunded thing You can’t imagine me NSF spinner show me not the NIH is not going to give you any money for the origins of life But it’s really fascinating And that’s it Project we have a project called many electrons witches Start of a material science Condensed matter physics trying to model the clouds of electrons inside materials It’s a many body problem really But you have not only is it many bodies which Electrons that would normally repel each other But you also have their entangled If you guys know it entanglement means it A strange phenomenon in quantum mechanics modeling these big clouds of electrons Is extremely difficult to do Even though the first principles are well-known But so what And so that that’s a project and that’s going Quite well We have a project in microbial oceanography Restarting All the interactions between the Merit of Microbes In in the ocean Santa Ana number about it Show It’s It’s quite a vibrant Foundation that I think maybe some p People here Haven’t beneficiary Well you’re on the first row Bouquet I didn’t realize Okay well I mean How people hear The grass shall we give Oh but someone way back there Why aren’t you on the first row with these beautiful girls So So that That’s the foundation now actually under Weston wonderful circumstances I went back to my older age and to do mathematics United 2004 We watched the Sun What about sons and that was obviously very sad And Kind of was a refuge I just started Think about math And you know Doing mathematics you can Retreat and into your head And you just thinking about a problem and it and it can Blood Out other stuff and end I thought about a problem in What’s now called Jeff Roger call mology that I I thought about before and then I got serious about Hernan Turns out I later discovered That was a group of Germans Any German Honeywell Okay there are some Germans in you Who were working on the same problem I didn’t know that Set the time But I got an idea of how to solve it it was But it needed some topology which was beyond me And I spoke to my friend Dennis Sullivan who probably You’ve heard off it was a great apologist and together we we saw this problem with beat out The German Fitbit They were very nice German soccer that came Overnight they had Had some other results that we didn’t have someone in Joel Elvis all very collegial But not unless we beat them And that was that was gratifying And since then I haven’t written a couple of other papers with that is so I found Back Small way doing Chow I retired from From Renaissance And now 5 years ago 2009 And Well I’m the chair Should I go to a monthly meeting and But those guys are doing a wonderful job Peter Brown and Bob Mercer Who came out of IBM 20 years ago Then. They ran it Speech recognition group for IBM They came in and I kept bringing members of that group How to write a song to now there They’re running The company show And I’ve just been focusing on the foundation Fact one of our Bob Mention the other programs are basic science project we have a program called Math for America Inn in New York City Which John Ewing was formerly the head of Executive director of the math American Mattress it who was here There is What is white Janice And John runs at program and it’s a very successful Very successful program of Getting competent teachers Rewarding them In the New York City schools and now in And the state Schools as well And So That’s That’s what I do So Soy I gave a similar talk Sameer Segal My wife said while you know your otter Talk And a talk with your values Chad Remember Weather in the cottage I’m not sure I have any any values I know what my values are exactly But I said oh but I But I have some guiding principles will call him guiding Pro Which Wich Looking back I think I’ve probably filed it so I have five guys Boy tell you So one of them is Don’t run with the pack try to try to do something That’s that’s original course you want to do something original but sometimes it’s in matheran Trying to General Everyone’s kind of running to solve the same problem do the same thing If you’re really fast Maybe you’re going to be the winner But it’s better I think Probably you’re not going to be the one but if you can Shut up doing and run around think about something that other people aren’t thinking about That’s that’s a pretty good way to To do things Now I partnered with a lot of people And I think that partnering was people is terrific but you want to partner with wonderful people The names I’ve mentioned the churn and Sullivan and Various people John Ewing They’ve been Really outstanding David eisenbud Outstanding people And you can Leverage your own Efforts and Sometimes Proper people are smarter than you But that’s fine and if it’s But just have good choice in partners And I think that’s I’ve always try to do that A third principal Is be guided by Beauty Now you all are mashed petitions and you know about Maddox is beautiful And Do you know you’re you know in an equation Greater work Ideas Is very pretty and so on and that’s a wonderful Aesthetic To follow but it’s not just true in mathematics there’s their Aesthetics In other Enterprises a well-run business Is Call of a beautiful thing if everything is just working just right and the pieces I’m Messing And it’s a good organization that that’s kind of beautiful and and it’s so Beauty is a Can be a good guy The last About the penultimate Principle is Don’t give up No Sometimes It is Discretion is the better part of valor and you can just say the hell with it But I can go out to something else and that’s a decision We’ve all made it one time or another But Persistence Has a lot of value and something that’s Really worthwhile can take a lot of time to come to fruition and your other have patience If you believe in something To just stick with it And my final principal is APA good luck That’s it so thank you very much We have a few minutes What’s 4 questions So The floor is open Okay who is it? Alright there’s one there And speak loudly Well I’ve not done a lot of things So the question is When do when do I have any wisdom about when not to do something and Well I don’t think I have any wisdom on that that any One else you looks like a room full of sensible people Panda You probably can Ditto You’ve had a lot of opportunities to say no and it’s And in particular They had of a foundation you really need to know how to say no because you know Well anyway I was going to tell a joke but I won’t Okay another another question Yeah I can’t hear you Okay My thoughts on the hedge fund industry today Do I think it’s working right or I think it’s worth or what’s right or what’s wrong well There are a lot of hedge funds today when when When I started this there were a lot fewer A hedge fund for those of you who don’t know what they are Is a fund that people invest in The managers charge a percentage of the profits Typically let’s say 20% And a fixed fee The maybe one or two percent and they manage the money and the new Hopefully you a benefit from it Hedge funds of ebbed and flowed on I don’t know what the word is That got waxed and waned they’ve got Pet got better and then got worse They go through periods where They seem to be doing all very well The last Two years hedge funds have not done very well The markets have One of the things that’s good about Some hedge funds Buy and sell things and they go along and they go short You need a certain amount of volatility To make that work if nothing’s really moving Then they better talk that I talked to make money was a lot of competition and hedge funds was an awful lot of them today So I think probably That is as a whole industry it’s not as successful as perhaps it was when they were Fewer but there are certainly some Some good hedge funds in that coming all Stripes wear Are funds as I told you it was 100% systematic And there aren’t very many of those But they’re awesome And a few of them are good But But there are many That have other policies and Do fundamental trading in And you know it’s it’s a range of approaches Child That’s all I can say about hedge funds I think Okay What’s the reason On these collaborative goal-driven things but it’s not our only focus it’s it’s it’s Shaping up to be about a third of what we’ll do what we’re doing and it’s not there yet I find it Challenging and enjoyable It’s Ri autism project Which is certainly goal-driven and it is collaborative Has Show me yeah this is a pretty good way to make progress And it and I like I like working with me but I like seeing people working together Chow Yeah it is you have to be careful You understand that the goal Maybe Far off But if they’re making progress like this origins of life I mean You know I don’t think in life my lifetime I’m going to know The answer which is really what’s a completely plausible path let’s say to RNA or something like that From first principles how do we get to that Oneonta Han I see they’re making some really nice nice progress And and how this The chemical came to an existence or that And they’re also looking at exoplanets and seeing and they can look at atmospheres of exoplanets and see what Planets might have atmospheres that would be conducive to life show A lot of science will get done And gradually will will You know eventually maybe we’ll find the answer so I like that Approach it’s not the only approach Most of the money we give out in mathematics Is the individual researchers and so on and all those people fell Held up the hands are Individuals but but I like that Yes When I was a kid how did my parents help Foster my mathematical knowledge that’s the question And the answer is they didn’t I mean you know they thought I was a good kid And they were Glad I like School But I don’t think they said his this boy is going to be I’m at petition or anything like that So I wasn’t put into any Pushed in any direction whatsoever Have to do my homework my mother I was not a good homework to her like I hated doing my homework Yes Okay so what I change anything is I look back in my professional life Well Not really I don’t think I made any huge mistakes In my professional life one doesn’t know what A different path might have might have led to a dime is nothing that glares is that oh my God I wish I hadn’t done that I’m in there silly things In my life that I Say I wish I hadn’t said that or or one thing or another Are going out with that particular Good girl But But in general No when I look back I think was at all okay babe it’s nothing I would no big change that I would want to make What weather Okay Okay that’s a good question the question is at Renaissance where The algorithms that they develop in the ideas are very proprietary And not you know you can’t patent or copyright them Cuz people would just take it over and you You just be lawsuits all the time The question is if we’re developing this Scott a new science Would we have any wish to set of share with the general public In some sense or other hand The answer is No nobody else not meant as a joke that the There isn’t anything that these guys have done That of such generality and Power That it would be that it’s a shame That the world doesn’t know it Is it it’s a very powerful group of people Who can focus on on data and and get some very very good results But but That’s nothing but show General That it would really need to be shared with the world Far as I know Yes Yes Yes okay the question is what am I thoughts on math education In America and my thoughts are needs to be better As probably most of you Most of you realize So How did the background I got interested in this because When I went to Berkeley To be a graduate student I was the Beneficiary Of a National Defense Education Act Fellowship Now only these old folks here and probably ever heard of the National Defense Education Act but when Sputnik went up In 1957 The hole Country wedding into Spasm And the Congress at oh my God you know the Russians are going to beat us I’ll be on the moon throwing vodka Raditz soon we can’t get our satellites up there Got theirs up We need to strengthen the scientific Enterprise in United States and they did They created the National Defense Education Act a beefed-up the National Science Foundation When I got my massage Quarrel with John about this but I’m going to give this statistic anyway When I got my PhD in 1961 I think there were fewer than a hundred people in the United States Show me 100 Americans who got PhD in mathematics Ten years later they were 1400 About 100 was too few 14 highway to know what to do with it because you know they weren’t enough academic job But the end and another Professions other scientific theories this was someone that was a lot of growth and we Saw a national problem Cold War And we were going to solve it through building up our science And we did we did a marvelous job of building up science Salaries went up in in in the universities for Those kind of folks in a lot of people came in The science young young people And it was a great success so about 15 years ago I looked around More maybe more The 15 years but And I Realize that the Teaching Math I was only focusing on math in our schools was really not very good And And I realized like we all do that the economy is becoming Farm or quantitative and then it used to be 40 or 50 years ago And more and more of Things are based on quantitative methods I would not Really Keeping up Are Teachers Buying large don’t know in particular in math I think The subject Very well Cuz if you know enough math to be a good high school teacher and that means you know college math and Something something You’re not just one step ahead of the kids if you know that much Matt and you have the least Mental agility which I Will you see if the second I don’t have You know how to program a computer You can go to work for Google you can go to work for Microsoft you can go to work for Apple I haven’t An apple fell right here in front of me And so and you know you’re going to get paid twice as much and and so on What’s the keep Someone who actually knows the field In the profession Well You might really like teaching and that’s great But the The pullout So something needs needed to be done to make the job of teaching math and in fact Math and Science more track So that we would Educate our kids better and be able to compete in the world and Show I had Okay I have a program I know what to do Friend of mine guy who became a friend Senator Schumer Schumer Adjustment elected and part of the reason he was elected as because I gave him $250 or whatever it was anyway I was just I was a supporter of Senator Schumer I probably was a little more But I know it wasn’t somehow but I had a party for him and became a friend And as soon as he got elected I went right to Washington I said here’s an idea you got to do this and I said Drake this program Reward people who Give teachers a test if they pass the test You give them money And they’ll be rewarded and I’ll stay in the schools and people will be drawn into The field because they’re going to get an extra stipend from the National Defense Education Act You should that’s a great idea I’ll get right on As I left his office another group one in about I don’t know something about Dams on the beaches of Long Island and I heard him say So that’s a great idea I’ll get right on it I’m exaggerating Finish lot we’ve been only slightly So So not he didn’t get right on We Chat we had a few conversations but nothing was going to happen As a federal program And so A few years went by End Actually Msri Was kind of in the picture Because We had A poker tournament to benefit at Msri David hook me up with a few people in New York or in the also in the financial business out of the way you found those guys And We shot together how can we benefit msri And One of the guys with a poker player and we were talking and I said hey you know And I like poker why do we have a Charity poker tournament and we did And it worked Extremely well and then msri Casa benefit Well I thought well if it were going to do this every year In New York It better be something that really relates more than you are cuz I’m not going to get These guys coming out every year to give money to msri which is in California Add for math research I don’t know how we talked him into it the first time but Tell that I thought okay you know maybe this is the time to start this program here in the city And just do what I selves and so so we did And and we had to Tournament every year not raise some money and the quartzite Provided a great deal of it On top of that And so that the program was started privately Two years ago the state of New York Took on to do the same program Outside the city as we’re doing in the city and they’re building up we have 800 teachers of now Math and Science in New York City Next year it’ll be a thousand that will be 10% of the math and science teachers in New York will be part of this A really knowledgeable Committed teachers they all get extra stipends and sewing in the states doing the same thing and will hoping that other states In the country will take on the federal government Is The state of paralysis And it’s probably better to work through States but it’s a long haul That’s a very long answer I’m sorry I maybe I’ll take one more question Okay Amine Baba robot kit for XK you guys know about bourbaki Robotboy biking Well it was sort of a the French of course that this Any French people in the army You know they wanted to codify you know all of You know United States in England we have common law The tradition and other conditions grow up and let you know do you call bike Various court cases in that becomes a law in one thing or another In France and it’s not like that at all everything is codified all of the you know Only in routers code in the end of the French lactic Codify everything and so Bourbaki wanted to get right down to it and Codify mathematics and somewhere then I think some of it was pretty good I’m not an expert on it what what do you think about Poor Bucky Well that’s when it went IC was actually created at that time well okay Weather Will he catch it will they catch it I just be exposed to it I know question and I’m sure of it The federal money is not well as spending my Republican friends think not a penny of it as well spent but. But I think so All of it is anyway I think we have to stop David Is going to throw me off

    3 Things Fish Shouldn’t Be Able to Do
    Articles, Blog

    3 Things Fish Shouldn’t Be Able to Do

    August 31, 2019


    [ INTRO ] When you look at a goldfish in a bowl, it’s
    hard to imagine there’s much going on behind those googly eyes. But biologists have found lots of amazing
    things about fish, like how their swim bladders let them control buoyancy. Some fish even take their adaptations to the
    extreme—almost like they have superpowers. Take the archerfish, which gets its name from
    the stealthy way it hunts. It knocks down insects by spitting out a powerful
    jet of water, and then its gobbles its prey up. First, archerfish collect water in their mouths
    by making tubes with their tongues. And then they force it out by squeezing their
    gill covers closed. Their aim is so precise that they’ve been
    seen shooting down insects flying at 25 centimeters per second, and 2 meters above the water’s
    surface! Unlike Superman, archerfish aren’t born
    with their sharpshooting skills. Instead, young archerfish hunt in small schools
    and pick it up through observational learning. A lot of subtle calculations and practice
    go into each blast. For one, light rays bend or refract when they
    change material, like from air to water. Different materials are different densities,
    which changes how light passes through them. So when light reaches an archerfish’s eyes,
    it doesn’t see exactly where its prey is. Kind of like how a pencil looks shifted when
    you stick it halfway into a glass of water. To solve this, archerfish have to aim their
    shot carefully to compensate for the light refracting. Exactly how they do this math is still a bit
    of a mystery though. Archerfish can adjust how powerful their shot
    is, too. For example, for a higher target, they open
    their mouths longer to let in more water, and release it a little more slowly. This makes a more forceful jet of water that
    lasts longer. Scientists have even found that archerfish
    seem to have some visual memory! In one experiment, researchers showed archerfish
    two faces on a screen mounted above their tank — one they wanted the fish to target
    and one they didn’t. The fish got a food reward every time they
    shot water at the target face. They, then showed the fish the non-target
    face and some new faces, to test whether they’d keep ignoring the non-target. Turns out they could! Even if the faces were in black and white
    and the picture was cropped. Now, this next fish has the ability to hunt
    using a killer tail-flip. But not in the water—on land . The mangrove killifish spends most of its
    time lurking in warm, muddy waters low in oxygen and fairly high in hydrogen sulfide
    — the toxic compound that smells like rotten eggs. Those aren’t exactly pleasant conditions,
    but the killifish tolerates them. But when the water quality gets too poor,
    especially if there’s too much hydrogen sulfide, the killifish hightails it out of there and
    spends up to two months living on land. If most fish leave water, the thin plates
    of tissue that make up the gills, called gill lamellae, collapse. So they can’t exchange oxygen and carbon
    dioxide with the environment. Basically, they can’t breathe. The killifish avoids this by growing more
    cells that act like scaffolding in between their lamellae, known as interlamellar cell
    masses. This scaffolding reduces the gills’ surface
    area and exposure to air, so it protects them from drying out. And when they hop back in the water, the cell
    masses waste away and the gills work regularly again. Without functioning gills on land, the killifish
    relies on its skin for breathing. Their skin is full of special chemoreceptive
    neuroepithelial cells that detect when the fish is in air and trigger those changes in
    the gills and increase blood flow to help shuttle chemicals around. The relatively thin epidermis, or outer layer,
    is also filled with ion-exchanging cells called ionocytes. In exclusively water-dwelling fish, they’re
    only found in the gills. Ionocytes help maintain the levels of ions
    in blood so that a fish’s cells can function properly. The killifish’s final trick is a super-powerful
    tail flip that it uses to hunt on land. It contracts the muscles on the upper side
    of its body, making it curl into a “C” shape. Then, a wave of contractions forces its tail
    onto the ground and flips it high into the air, so it can grab insects high above it. Now, the tuskfish might be the first example
    of a fish that uses tools — something we’d usually associate with the great apes or humans. Several species of tuskfish like to eat juicy
    clams. But the edible part is hidden inside a hard
    shell. The tuskfish gets its name from its prominent
    teeth. It uses these to grip a clam, swim over to
    a nearby rock, and smash the shell it by throwing the clam or flicking its head. In a way, it’s using a rock like an anvil. While there’s no one definition of tool
    use in animals, scientists generally agree that it has something to do with holding or
    manipulating an object to alter the environment or attain a goal. And researchers have noticed that tuskfish
    will pick a rock that’s big and solid enough to break a clam shell, and they’ll use a
    favorite rock again and again. Some scientists argue that because the fish
    are grabbing the clam instead of the rock, they’re not really using tools. But fish don’t have any grasping limbs to
    hold onto tools. So if a fish held a stone in its mouth, the
    food would probably float away. So maybe the way we think about tool use needs
    to consider an animal’s environment and anatomy a bit more. But either way, the tuskfish is still showing
    off some skills that are more complex than you might expect. Thanks for watching SciShow, which is produced
    by Complexly, a group of people who want to help humans think about the world we live
    in more deeply. If you want to learn more about wildlife,
    you can check out Animal Wonders, another one of our channels, at youtube.com/animalwondersmontana. [ OUTRO ]